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Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...


Christine Clark

(b London, 1767; d Hobart, Tasmania, July 11, 1851).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in Australia. In London he exhibited six portraits at the Royal Academy (1817–23) and three genre paintings at the British Institution and engraved two colour plates for George Morland, before moving to Hobart, Tasmania, in 1832. At the Hobart Mechanics’ Institute in 1833 he delivered the first lecture in Australia on the subject of painting. In 1849 he contributed the paper ‘The School of Athens as it Assimilates with the Mechanics Institution’ to a series of seven lectures (later published) delivered at the Institute. Duterrau painted landscapes and portraits but is best known for his works depicting the Aborigines of Tasmania and their traditional way of life. He was very interested in the events that led to the exclusion of the Aborigines from Tasmania, and in a series of works begun in 1834 but not executed until the early 1840s he showed George Augustus Robinson under commission from the Governor of Tasmania to restore peace with them. ...


Anne Gray

(b Alfredtown, Victoria, Sept 3, 1880; d London, Jan 21, 1938).

Australian draughtsman and printmaker. In his formative years he worked as a caricaturist for several Australian magazines. He moved to London in 1910 where he worked as a cartoonist for the Labour newspapers, the Daily Herald and New Age, and achieved great success with his biting cartoons (e.g. ‘Give Us this Day’; Cartoons, 1913), which made him a leading figure among English intellectuals. He worked in the humanist tradition of Honoré Daumier, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen and Jean-Louis Forain. He was a determined satirist calling for a better world, concerned with political hypocrisy and social injustice, and his cartoons were admired for their apt captions as well as for the hard-hitting images that accompanied them. Dyson visited the Western Front as an Official War Artist during World War I to record the Australian involvement in the war. He worked in the trenches among battle-weary soldiers and was wounded, though not seriously, at Messines and Passchendaele. He made numerous compassionate and frank watercolour-wash drawings of the ordinary soldier (e.g. ...


(b Birmingham, March 15, 1863; d Waverley, Oct 1, 1930).

Australian painter, etcher and illustrator, also active in England. In his formative years he undertook illustrative commissions for the Picturesque Atlas of Australasia, as well as for the Australian Town and Country Journal and other publications. For a time he painted with his friends Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton and Charles Conder at their camps around Mosman, or on trips to Richmond and along the Hawkesbury River. In his best paintings of this period he achieved a lyricism and sure handling of paint that resembles the work of Conder. During this period he also became interested in etching. In 1900 he moved to New York and the following year he travelled to London, where he continued to work as a black-and-white artist with the London Graphic and Black and White. He painted landscapes depicting picturesque sights and developed an interest in monotypes, using the delicacy of this medium to create soft, low-key images of atmospheric subjects. He worked in the tradition of English landscape painters, such as John Constable and John Sell Cotman, producing calm, quiet, understated images....


(b Vienna, Nov 7, 1811; d London, April 17, 1901).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and lithographer, active in Australia. He was the son of Bernhard von Guérard (d 1836), a miniaturist who was court painter in Vienna to Francis II (reg 1792–1806). In 1826 he left with his father for Italy, and from 1830 he studied for a period in Rome. In 1832 they went to Naples and travelled extensively in southern Italy. After his father’s death, he returned to Germany in 1838 and studied at the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf from 1839/40 to 1845/6, including landscape classes under Johan Wilhelm Schirmer. Sometime before 1852 he travelled to London; while there he succumbed to the lure of the Victorian Gold Rush, the subject of much excitement in England, and in 1852 he emigrated to Australia. He recorded his goldfield experiences of 1853–4 in a series of sketches (Ballarat, F.A.Gal.) and years later produced an important painting, ...



(b Hamburg, Oct 8, 1877; d Hahndorf, nr Adelaide, July 2, 1968).

Australian painter and printmaker of German birth. His family settled in South Australia in 1884. Having attended the Norwood Art School under James Ashton (1859–1935), he studied in Paris at the Académie Julian, Colarossi’s academy and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and travelled in Europe. He was particularly influenced by Constable, the Barbizon school, George Clausen, Ernest Atkinson Hornel and Frank Brangwyn. In 1904, after returning to Adelaide, he sold major oils to the National Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney (Coming Home), and the National Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide (Mystic Morn). In 1908 he moved to Hahndorf in the Adelaide Hills. Heysen recorded the labours of the German farmers who had settled in the area, in oils, watercolours, drawings and (occasionally) etchings: for Heysen the rural labourers of Hahndorf were the equivalent of Millet’s Fontainebleau peasants. This aspect of his work reached its peak in ...


Joanna Mendelssohn


(b Goulburn, NSW, Aug 20, 1871; d London, Jan 25, 1955).

Australian painter and printmaker. In the early 1890s, while studying art part-time at the Art Society of New South Wales at Sydney, he attracted the attention of Julian Rossi Ashton, then head teacher. In 1894 his first major painting, By Tranquil Waters (1894), a river-bathing scene in a self-conscious Impressionist style, was purchased by the National Art Gallery of New South Wales. In the next 15 years he painted increasingly decorative works, emphasizing the flatness of the picture-plane and adopting a narrow tonal range of moody blues and grey–greens. In his subject-matter he tried to create a specifically Australian myth. His most important painting, Spirit of the Plains (1897; Brisbane, Queensland A.G.), shows a female bush spirit leading her brolgas in a dance. His favourite painting, Pan (1898; Sydney, A.G. NSW), transposes European mythology to an Australian setting of rhythmically decorative gum trees. His distinctive use of decorative vegetation remained the principal characteristic of his style....


Rosemary T. Smith

(b London, 1801; d Sydney, Aug 21, 1878).

Australian painter, lithographer and librarian of English birth. Son of a London merchant, he studied c. 1816 under Copley Fielding. His training was as a watercolourist and his most important works are watercolours, although he also produced paintings in oils. His early work displays the taste then current for the Picturesque. Francis Danby, David Cox and Turner were artists he admired. Martens left for India in 1832 or 1833 but at Montevideo joined Charles Darwin’s expedition, replacing Augustus Earle as topographical draughtsman aboard the Beagle. The work strengthened his observation of detail and skill as a draughtsman. He left the expedition in October 1834 and, travelling via Tahiti and New Zealand, arrived in Sydney in April 1835. There he worked as a professional artist, in the 1840s and 1850s producing lithographic views of the Sydney area to augment his income. In 1863 he was appointed Parliamentary Librarian, which secured his finances. The skills he had acquired aboard the ...


Rosemary T. Smith

(b Port Adelaide, Australia, Feb 22, 1855; d Pangbourne, England, April 1, 1938).

British painter and etcher of Australian birth. He studied at the Adelaide School of Design with John Hood. In 1875 his family moved to London and he married. Three years later he enrolled at the South Kensington School of Design, studying with Edward John Poynter. In 1880 Menpes went on a sketching tour of Brittany and later that year met Whistler. He left art school to study informally with Whistler, learning much from him about composition and etching technique. Menpes’s reputation was soon established. He regularly exhibited at the Royal Academy, was elected to the Royal Society of Painters and Etchers in 1881 and became a member of the Society of British Artists in 1885. In 1887 he began an extended journey to Japan. When he returned, his Japanese paintings formed the first of many successful one-man exhibitions; the exhibition was hold at Dowdeswell, London.

In 1900 Menpes worked as a war artist in South Africa for the ...


(b Hobart, Aug 27, 1836; d Sydney, July 17, 1914).

Australian painter, printmaker and photographer of French descent. He studied painting at Cambridge House in Hobart, where he won the prize for drawing in 1849. Between 1850 and 1872 he worked as a draughtsman for the Tasmanian Survey Office, receiving additional instruction in art from Frank Dunnett (1822–91), a retired Scottish painter and engraver. In the mid-1860s he began exhibiting his paintings and made his first lithographed views, mostly of the River Derwent and its environs. In 1870 he received a bronze medal for his photographs at the Intercolonial Exhibition in Sydney. In 1872 he left his job and became Australia’s first native-born professional painter and a major artist working in the 19th-century Romantic landscape tradition, capturing the form and spirit of the vast Australian landscape. He spent much of the 1870s accompanying organized expeditions into the central and south-western wilderness of Tasmania in search of compelling subjects to paint. In ...


Janda Gooding

(b Melbourne, Aug 31, 1861; d Melbourne, Sept 4, 1946).

Australian painter, printmaker and curator, who worked mostly in Western Australia. While working in the photographic trade, Pitt Morison studied part time (1881–9) at the National Gallery School in Melbourne. He formed a friendship with the artist Tom Humphrey (1858–1922) and soon after he became associated with, and exhibited with, a group that included Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton. The group, later known as the Heidelberg school, painted en plein air in the outer suburbs of Melbourne, around Box Hill and Heidelberg, experimenting with new theories of light and colour derived from the French Impressionists. Pitt Morison travelled to Europe in 1890 and studied at the Académie Julian in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and William Bouguereau..

Pitt Morison was forced to return to Australia in 1893, due to the collapse of Victorian banks and the subsequent loss of his income. A job in the photographic trade in Bunbury offered him an opportunity to move and he arrived in Western Australia in ...



(b Port Adelaide, April 29, 1875; d Mosman, Sydney, May 28, 1963).

Australian painter and printmaker. The family moved to Sydney in 1885 and in 1888 Margaret Macpherson began taking classes with the Australian painter William Lister-Lister (1859–1943). She moved to Melbourne in 1892 and the following year enrolled at the School of Design of the National Gallery, where she studied under Frederick McCubbin. She lived in Adelaide from 1894 to 1896 and on her return to Melbourne attended the National Gallery Painting School. In 1898 she studied at the Adelaide School of Design under the Australian artist Harry Pelling Gill (1855–1916). Her work of this period, mainly still-lifes such as Onions—Still Life (1895; Adelaide, A.G. S. Australia) and The Aeroplane (c. 1925; Canberra, N.G.), showed the influence of her academic training. She sailed in 1904 to Genoa, from where she travelled all over Europe, exhibiting at the Salon in Paris in 1905 before returning to Adelaide in ...


Ron Radford

(b Berlin, 1814; d Adelaide, Nov 6, 1864).

Australian painter and printmaker of German birth. He was the most important artist working in the colony of South Australia in the second half of the 19th century. He trained at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin, where his portraits and genre subjects were shown in most of the biennial exhibitions from 1834 to 1848. He travelled for three years in Italy before working in Warsaw between 1838 and 1844. His painting Boating Party of Berlin Artists near Treptow (1838; Berlin, Märk. Mus.) reveals his interest in outdoor genre subjects, which continued in Australia in his Aboriginal paintings.

Like thousands of other Germans at this period, Schramm moved to South Australia, arriving in Adelaide on 7 August 1849. He worked there until his death 15 years later. Schramm’s fascination with the Aborigines, at a time when their tribal life was being disrupted by white settlement, is evident in his oil paintings and less frequent watercolours, drawings and lithographs. His work is distinctive in colonial art for his sympathetic, yet unsentimental, portrayal of Aboriginal Australians, as, for example, in ...


Shearer West

English family of painters and illustrators . Richard Westall (b Hertford, 1765; d London, 4 Dec 1836) was apprenticed in 1799 to John Thompson, a heraldic engraver in London. The miniaturist John Alefounder (d 1795) advised Westall to take up painting, and in 1784 he exhibited a portrait drawing (untraced) at the Royal Academy. He became a student at the Royal Academy Schools in 1785, an ARA in 1792 and an RA in 1794. He exhibited over 300 works at the Royal Academy and 70 at the British Institution, including such large watercolours as Cassandra Prophesying the Fall of Troy (exh. London, RA 1796; London, V&A), which are painted in violent and sometimes excessive colours. Others, such as The Rosebud (1791; New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.), tend towards a Rococo prettiness. His principal expertise was book illustration. He was employed by John Boydell, Thomas Macklin and ...