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Article

Judith Zilczer

Journal devoted to photography that was published from 1903 to 1917. Camera Work evolved from a quarterly journal of photography to become one of the most ground-breaking and influential periodicals in American cultural history. Founded in January 1903 by photographer Alfred Stieglitz as the official publication of the Photo-Secession, the journal originally promoted the cause of photography as a fine art. As Stieglitz, its editor and publisher, expanded the journal’s scope to include essays on aesthetics, literature, criticism and modern art, Camera Work fueled intellectual discourse in early 20th-century America.

Camera Work mirrored the aesthetic philosophy of its founder Alfred Stieglitz. The journal resulted from his decade-long campaign to broaden and professionalize American photography. Serving for three years as editor of American Amateur Photographer (1893–6), Stieglitz championed the expressive potential of photography and advocated expanded exhibition opportunities comparable to those available in European photographic salons. In 1897, when the Society of Amateur Photographers merged with the New York Camera Club, Stieglitz convinced the enlarged organization to replace their modest leaflet with a more substantial quarterly journal, Camera Notes, which he edited until ...

Article

(b Mexico City, Jul 28, 1874; d Mexico City, Mar 30, 1938).

Mexican photographer, journalist, and collector. Casasola initially studied typography before becoming a reporter in 1894. He probably began taking photographs to illustrate his articles and in 1902 traveled to Veracruz to photograph a tour by President Porfirio Díaz. Newspapers that publicly criticized Díaz or his government were often harassed or closed, thus articles and their illustrations often focused exclusively on positive aspects of Mexican life, such as the development of infrastructure, the growth of trade, and the pastimes of the elites living in Mexico City (see Monasterio 2003, 32–41). At the same time, Casasola sometimes photographed scenes of everyday life, traveling, for example, to haciendas near Mexico City to photograph the peasant farmworkers. In these images he took care, lest he attract the ire of the government, to avoid any display of the harsh conditions that characterized life for the majority of Mexicans outside of the capital.

In 1905 Agustín and his brother Miguel were both working as photographers for ...

Article

Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...

Article

Kevin Halliwell

(Osipovich)

(b Selezna, Tambov province, July 16, 1837; d Nizhny Novgorod, July 31, 1906).

Russian photographer, collector, painter and draughtsman. He was born into a peasant family, and he studied briefly as an icon painter before entering the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg in 1857. After graduating in 1864, he stayed in St Petersburg to learn photography, and he opened a portrait studio in Nizhny Novgorod in 1869. Like many of his colleagues at the Academy, he had worked as a retoucher of photographs for the sake of employment, and initially he regarded photography merely as material support. He gradually became more interested in the medium, however, especially in the decade 1875–85, when it supplanted his painting.

Karelin made many photographic portraits and genre studies, and he is important in both the technical and the aesthetic sense. His studio was larger than usual, with numerous windows, top lighting and glazed walls. He disdained the use of painted props, preferring instead to use real domestic furnishings. He was especially concerned to achieve a sharp focus in all fields in the photograph, and to this end he studied optics, independently realizing the connection between the focal length of the lens and the size of the aperture for depth of clarity. To achieve his ends he therefore introduced into portrait photography the use of additional diverging and converging lenses. He also managed, through the use of lenses, to overcome the more common distortions. This technical achievement gained him many gold medals at international photographic exhibitions in the 1870s and 1880s....

Article

Eugenia Parry Janis

(b Paris, Aug 18, 1818; d Paris, Dec 26, 1882).

French photographer, painter, printmaker, and collector. After studying with the sculptor James Pradier and the painters Jean-Pierre Granger (1779–1840) and Paul Delaroche, he made his début at the Salon of 1842, winning a third-class medal there in 1845. He turned to photography in the wave of self-enrichment preceding the 1848 Revolution. With Charles Nègre he experimented with the waxed paper negative process of (Jean-Baptiste-)Gustave Le Gray, from whom he probably received personal instruction before 1850. Unlike other photographers, who later adopted glass negatives, Le Secq continued to use paper, at first employing photographs as studies for his genre paintings.

By 1851 Le Secq excelled at rendering ancient and medieval monuments in a pictorial style that exploited the effects of light and shadow, turning architecture into symbolic fragments evoking a rapidly disappearing historical past, which Le Secq sought to save photographically. After helping found the Société Héliographique in 1851...

Article

Judith Zilczer

(b Hoboken, NJ, Jan 1, 1864; d New York, July 13, 1946).

American photographer, editor, publisher, patron and dealer. Internationally acclaimed as a pioneer of modern photography, he produced a rich and significant body of work between 1883 and 1937 (see fig.). He championed photography as a graphic medium equal in stature to high art and fostered the growth of the cultural vanguard in New York in the early 20th century.

The first of six children born to an upper-middle-class couple of German–Jewish heritage, Stieglitz discovered the pleasure of amateur photography after 1881, when his family left New York to settle temporarily in Germany. His father, Edward Stieglitz, had retired from a successful business in the wool trade with a fortune that enabled him to educate his children abroad. In 1882 Alfred enrolled in the mechanical engineering programme of the Technische Hochschule in Berlin, but he spent his spare time experimenting with photography in a darkroom improvised in his student quarters. His self-directed experiments led him to study photochemistry with the eminent scientist Hermann ...