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Article

Liana Paredes-Arend

[Cristallerie de Baccart]

French glassworks. In 1764 Monseigneur de Montmorency-Laval, Bishop of Metz, petitioned Louis XV to have a glassworks built at Baccarat, near Lunéville, in order to make use of his vast forests. The factory was initially directed by Antoine Renault and was called the Verreries de Sainte-Anne because Renault requested permission to build a chapel so that the workers could attend their religious obligations. At first the factory produced soda glass for household and industrial purposes. In 1816 it was purchased by the Belgian manufacturer Aimé-Gabriel D’Artigues (1778–1848), who transferred his Vôneche glassworks near Namur to Baccarat, built a new factory and began the production of lead glass. In 1823 the factory changed its name to the Compagnie des Cristalleries de Baccarat and made plain crystal, opaline, and some alabaster and agate glass. In 1846 Baccarat began producing millefiori glassware and paperweights, followed by paperweights with flowers, fruits or reptiles. From ...

Article

Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Walter Spiegl

Glass manufactory in Brandenburg. The first Brandenburg glassworks was established in 1602 by Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg (reg 1598–1608), and was run by Bohemian glassmakers. The earliest products included coloured and marbled glass. In 1607 the factory was transferred to Marienwalde, near Küstrin (now Kostrzyn, Poland), and another factory was built in Grimnitz in 1653. Both factories produced window glass and simple drinking vessels based on Bohemian models and painted with enamels or, from the mid-17th century, engraved. In 1674 Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, built another factory at Drewitz near Potsdam for the production of glass crystal. The glass-engraver Georg Gondelach came from Dessau to work there from 1677, accompanied by the engraver Christoph Tille (fl 1685) and the enamel-painter Ruel. After the arrival of the glassmaker Johann Kunckel (1630–1703), the great period of Brandenburg glass began. Kunckel operated the glassworks in Drewitz from ...

Article

Catherine Brisac

French town and château some 8 km south-east of Paris, in the département of Val-de-Marne. The château was built (1680–86) for Anne-Marie-Louise d’Orléans, Duchesse de Montpensier (1627–93), by Jacques Gabriel IV. His design was a simple one, with strong horizontal lines countered by tall rectangular windows and rusticated quoins to the shallow projecting bays. Artists employed on the interior decoration included the painters Antoine Coypel, Gabriel Blanchard, Jean Le Moyne and Adam Frans van der Meulen and the sculptor Etienne Le Hongre. The grounds were laid out by André Le Nôtre. Used as a hunting-lodge by Louis XV, King of France, from 1740, the château was enlarged by Ange-Jacques Gabriel in several campaigns (1742–52), the additions including a gallery, a theatre and various garden buildings. Much sculpture was commissioned for the grounds, which were remodelled, including work by René-Michel Slodtz and Edmé Bouchardon. In ...

Article

Olga Drahotová

[Ger. Kreibitz]

Czech centre of glass production. A glass factory was established in Chřibská in northern Bohemia on the Česká Kamenice estate in the Lužické Mountains at the beginning of the 15th century. Martin Friedrich (1582–1612) was a renowned glassmaker, and he and other glassmakers at the works were invited in 1601 by the Elector of Brandenburg, Joachim Frederick (reg 1598–1608), to establish a glass workshop at Grimnitz in north Brandenburg. From the list of products made at Grimnitz it is evident that the Chřibská glassworks produced cold-painted, enamelled, engraved and filigree glass. Dishes and goblets were decorated with the imperial eagle, the Electors, allegories of the Virtues, the Apostles and the Seven Ages of Man. During the 17th century the production of painted glass continued at Chřibská. In 1661 the first Bohemian guild of glassmakers, enamellers and glass engravers was established at Chřibská. From the 1660s local records indicate the names of the glass engravers, whose numbers increased after the 1670s. By the end of the 17th century the factory was producing a good-quality potash glass. Between ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of drinking glass created in the 18th century with a coin embedded in a knop in the stem. In 1892 a new type of ‘coin glass’ was introduced by the Central Glass Company of Wheeling, WV: coins were used to make moulds that would leave impressions of the coin on glass. This glass, which took the form of drinking glasses, butter dishes, cake stands etc., was produced for five months, whereupon the Treasury declared that the process constituted counterfeiting, and the moulds were destroyed....

Article

Gordon Campbell

American glasshouse established in Philadelphia in 1773 as the Kensington Glassworks; in 1831 the company was acquired by Dr T. W. Dyott and was thereafter known as the Dyottville Glass Works. The factory produced flint-glass table ware and a variety of bottles (notably cylindrical whiskey bottles in the third quarter of the 19th century); it specialized in pictorial flasks, some with historical themes. Dyott withdrew from the company on being declared bankrupt in 1838, but the firm continued to produce glass (including coloured glass from the 1840s) until the end of the century.

T. W. Dyott, J. Sergeant and M. Carey: An exposition of the system of moral and mental labor: Established at the glass factory of Dyottville, in the county of Philadelphia: Embracing a description of the glass factory, together with the system of industry therein pursued, with the report of the committee chosen to investigate the internal regulations of the place...

Article

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...

Article

(b Geneva, Jan 29, 1761; d Astoria, NY, Aug 12, 1849).

American politician and glassmaker of Swiss birth. Gallatin is best known for his public roles as Secretary of the Treasury under President Jefferson and President Madison, but he was also an important glass manufacturer. He moved to America in 1780, and in 1797 founded the New Geneva Glassworks in Western Pennsylvania. The factory began production in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell and Ada Polak

Glass factory established in 1742 in Kosta, in the Småland region of southern Sweden. No particularly original styles can be distinguished in its early wares. In the late 19th century, however, designers such as Gunnar Wennerberg (1863–1914) began to produce Art Nouveau glass in a style indebted to Emile Gallé. In 1903 Kosta and Reijmyre Glasbruk merged to become the Svenska Kristallbruk but retained their names and continued to design and manufacture separately (see under Sweden, Kingdom of §VIII 2.). Edvin Ollers worked as a painter and designer at Kosta (1917–18), and Dahlskog, Ewald revived glass-engraving during his period as director (1926–9). From 1950 to 1973 the artistic director was V. E. Lindstrand. Sweden's greatest studio glassmaker, Ann [Wärff] Wolff (b 1937), worked for the Kosta Glasbruk from 1964 to 1979, before she established her own studio at Transjö (near Kosta). In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell and Olga Drahotová

(b 1765; d 1808).

Austrian glasscutter. He worked at the Guttenbrunn Glassworks in Austria, where he used the Zwischengoldgläser technique (placing engraved gold leaf between two layers of glass) to develop the Medaillonbecher, in which an engraved foil medallion was inserted into a double-walled beaker (e.g. beaker, 1792; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.). The outside of the medallion was typically a portrait or a religious scene, and the inside was an inscription. ‘Mildner glass’ is now a generic term for this type of glass....

Article

Halina Chojnacka

[Radziwiłł]

Glassworks situated in Naliboki, Poland (now Belarus’). Established by Princess Anna Radziwiłł (1676–1746), it was in production from 1722 to 1862. The Naliboki Glassworks, managed by Constantin François Fremel (c. 1670–1750), produced ruby glass and high-quality crystal glass that had a tendency to crizzling and specialized in vessels and candlesticks. It practised relief engraving, and surviving documents record that it also produced wares decorated with applied relief ornament of pressed glass. The goblets were, to a certain degree, modelled on glass produced in Dresden and Berlin. Engraved ornament features figural scenes (examples in Tarnów, Dist. Mus.), portraits and coats of arms, usually of the Radziwiłł family and Augustus III (examples in Corning, NY, Mus. Glass; Växjö, Smålands Mus.;). The Naliboki Glassworks occasionally used the services of Dresden engravers: Johann Heinrich Heintze (fl c. 1715–48) between 1725 and 1727; Johann Christof Dreher from 1728 to 1732...

Article

Term used for a manifestation of the Neo-classical style initiated in the decorative arts of France during the Second Empire (1852–71) of Napoleon III and his wife, the Empress Eugénie. Based on the standard repertory of Greco-Roman ornament, it combined elements from the Adam, Louis XVI and Egyptian styles with a range of motifs inspired by discoveries at Pompeii, where excavations had begun in 1848; it can be identified by the frequent use of Classical heads and figures, masks, winged griffins, sea-serpents, urns, medallions, arabesques, lotus buds and borders of anthemion, guilloche and Greek fret pattern. Néo-Grec was eclectic, abstracted, polychromatic and sometimes bizarre; it enjoyed popularity as one of the many revival styles of the second half of the 19th century.

In Paris, the Néo-Grec style was best exemplified in the famous ‘Maison Pompéienne’ (1856–8; destr. 1891) designed for Prince Napoléon Bonaparte (see...

Article

Olga Drahotová

[Ger. Gratzen]

Czech centre of glass production. By the mid-16th century four glassworks were in production in Nové Hrady, and from the early 17th century wares included distillation glass, angsters, bottles, kettles, candlesticks, casks and goblets decorated with enamelling, cold colours or diamond-point engraving. By 1620 the town formed part of the Buquoy estate, and in 1673 a glassworks was founded by Louis Le Vasseur d’Ossimont (d 1689), which worked in conjunction with the factories at Lužnice (1677–1715) and Pohoří (1693–1777). At the end of the 17th century Buquoy crystal was regarded very highly. The glassworks was the first to develop a glass that was very translucent and suitable for deep cutting. In the 19th century the glassworks at Černé Údolí was established. An important figure was Josef Meyr (1732–1829), who with his son Johann Meyr (1775–1841) produced outstanding crystal glass at the ...

Article

[Ger. Haida]

Czech centre of glass production. Since the 1760s it has been the main centre for the trade in Bohemian glass produced in the surrounding area. In connection with the activity of the nearby glassworks at Chřibská and Falknov, since the mid-16th century numerous glass painters and, from the 1660s, glass engravers, grinders and enamellers have been active there. The success of exported Bohemian glass at the end of the 17th century brought about a greater concentration of decorating workshops and glass exporters in the area. The increase in glass traders gave rise to the first commercial companies, which from 1730 established trading houses in countries all over Europe. The refining workshops included the painting workshop of Friedrich Egermann (1777–1864), the inventor of Lithyalin glass (1829). In 1870 the Zeichnen- und Modelierschule was established, soon converted into a specialist glassmaking school. In the first quarter of the 20th century the ...

Article

Olga Drahotová

[formerly Neuwelt]

Czech glassworks. They were founded on the estate of the counts of Harrach in the Krkonoše Mountains in 1712 by Elias Müller (1672–1730). In 1732 two cutting workshops were set up at the works, and high-quality tableware and coloured glass were introduced. In 1764 production was broadened to include painted, opaque-white glass, made to resemble porcelain, and blue, green and sealing-wax red glass. In the same year the works were bought by Graf Ernst Guido Harrach (d 1783). Between 1773 and 1795 the factory was under the direction of the highly skilled glassmaker Anton Erben (d 1795), who was at first administrator and from 1778 tenant of the factory. After 1796 the works were reorganized, and after 1808 they came under the direction of Johann Pohl (fl 1808–50), whose experience contributed greatly to the factory’s success. The factory became particularly well known during the Biedermeier period, and it was famed for its crystal glass and for the quality of its cut decoration, with the result that it was highly acclaimed at the industrial exhibitions of the late 1820s. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French glass manufactory. In 1693 Louis XIV (reg 1643–1715) and his minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert established the Manufacture Royale des Grandes Glaces at Saint-Gobain (Picardy). The company’s large plate-glass mirrors quickly displaced the smaller blown-glass mirrors of Venice in European markets, and within France enjoyed a monopoly until the Revolution. Thereafter it opened a depot in New York (...

Article

Spoilum  

Patrick Conner

[Spilem; Spillem]

(fl Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 1770–1810).

Chinese painter for the Western export market. The artist known to Westerners as Spoilum – his Chinese name is uncertain – is first recorded in 1774, as the painter of a ‘reverse-glass’ portrait of a Western merchant. By the following decade he was painting in oils on canvas. Oil paint was an unfamiliar medium in the context of the Chinese pictorial tradition, and its use stemmed from Western influences. However, the Cantonese export painters of the late 18th century rapidly acquired a facility in this medium and, in the case of Spoilum, an individuality that could be regarded, in Western terms, as evidence of original genius.

Spoilum’s portraits, of Chinese and Western sitters alike, share certain idiosyncrasies: a sharply defined outline, a direct, almost quizzical expression, carefully observed costume details and, in the background, a markedly pale passage above the right shoulder. Typical examples are the portraits of the Cantonese silk merchant Eshing (before ...

Article

Halina Chojnacka

[Radziwiłł]

Glassworks in Urzecze, Poland (now Urechje, Belarus’), established by Princess Anna Radziwiłł (1676–1746), and in production from 1737 to 1842. The Glassworks was started by a team from Dresden-Friedrichstal and specialized in mirrors. Mirror plates were produced firstly by the ‘Lorraine’ method (see Glass §II 1., (ii)) and from 1756 by the casting method. Mirrors were mounted and ornamented with cut and engraved decoration under the artistic supervision of Christian Theodor Scherber (fl 1737–65; e.g. Warsaw, N. Mus.; Krakow, N. Mus.). Urzecze products included pier-glasses with glass cresting, sconces, devotional pictures and panels for furniture. Surviving examples date from 1750 to 1780 and reflect the English and Dresden Baroque style. A factory pattern book (Warsaw, Cent. Archvs. Hist. Rec.) dates from 1748. About 1750 Urzecze Glassworks started production of vessels in association with the Naliboki Glassworks. Local craftsmen were employed in both glassworks and contributed to a distinctive local style known as the Urzecze–Naliboki style (...