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Article

Sonia de Laforcade

(b Rio de Janeiro, April 4, 1933).

Brazilian printmaker, multimedia and video artist, and teacher. The daughter of Jewish immigrants from Poland, Geiger initiated her artistic career studying drawing, painting, and engraving with the artist Fayga Ostrower (1920–2001) in Rio de Janeiro between 1949 and 1953. She began to participate in group exhibitions in 1950, displaying an early focus on informal abstraction inspired by Ostrower’s legacy. In 1954 she left Brazil to spend a year studying with the art historian Hannah Levy Deinhard (1912–84) at New York University, interrupting her studies in Anglo-Germanic linguistics and literature at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia (now Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro). She resumed her course of study upon her return to Rio de Janeiro in 1955, graduating in 1957. Throughout the 1950s Geiger received a robust education in pedagogy, both in her classes with Ostrower and at the Faculdade, where she studied with the influential theorist of education Anísio Teixeira (...

Article

Adrian Locke

(b São Paulo, 1961).

Brazilian printmaker and conceptual artist. She was introduced to contemporary art and artists from an early age by her collector parents, Fulvia and Adolfo Leirner. She went on to study art at the College of Fine Arts, Fundação Armando Alvares Penteado, São Paulo, between 1979 and 1984, and at the Licenciatura in 1984; she returned to teach at the Fundação from 1987 to 1989. From the 1980s Leirner made sculptures and installations using such products of modern life as devalued bank notes, airline tickets, cigarette packages and shopping bags. This involved a process by which these mundane items are removed from circulation and placed into the art world, often in a conscious inversion of the work of the Brazilian conceptualist Cildo Meireles. To this end Leirner remade Meireles’s Zero Cruzeiro (1978) and the work of another Brazilian artist, Dinheiro para treinmento (‘Money for training’; 1977) by Waltercio Caldas (...

Article

Lelia Delgado

(b Caracas, June 16, 1948).

Venezuelan painter, installation artist and printmaker. He studied fine art at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas ‘Cristóbal Rojas’ in Caracas. From 1970 Lucena lived in Milan and took part in salons and biennial exhibitions in Europe. In 1980 he held his first one-man show in Venezuela at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo in Caracas. His work includes a series of experiments involving the spectator, whereby environments were created aimed at demonstrating the falsehood of daily visual appearances, simultaneously using both real and illusory weights, masses, colours and temperatures. He also distinguished himself with the quality of his graphic design for a series of books for the Fundación Boulton in Caracas.

Proposiciones de Víctor Lucena, 1969–1980 (exh. cat. by A. Boulton, Caracas, Mus. A. Contemp., 1980)

Venezuela, §IV, 3: Painting, graphic arts and sculpture, after c 1900...

Article

Denise Carvalho

(b Rio de Janeiro, 1948).

Brazilian interventionist, multimedia, installation and conceptual artist, considered the most influential contemporary artist of his country. While international critics have compared his work with North American Minimalism and Conceptual art, Meireles insisted that art should be seductive. He studied at the National School of Fine Arts and at the Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro. Coming of age at a time of the military dictatorship in Brazil (1964–85), he circumvented strict state censorship with a series of interventionist works, adding politically charged texts and reinserting the works back into circulation.

Insertions into Ideological Circuits: Coca-Cola Project (1970) included Coca-Cola bottles with the added text ‘Yankees. Go Home!’ In Insertions into Ideological Circuits: Cédula Project (1970), the same message was printed on one dollar bills, and on the current Brazilian currency, the Cruzeiro. Some bills also queried ‘Who killed Herzog?’ referring to a Brazilian journalist who died while in police custody. Meireles’ series utilizes a mechanistic process of capitalistic insertion and circulation, adding phrases that question the methods and policies of the dictatorship. ...