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Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

(b Aberdeen, 1740; d Philadelphia, PA, March 5, 1795).

American cabinetmaker of Scottish birth. He trained as a cabinetmaker in Edinburgh and London. In 1763 he arrived in Philadelphia on the same boat as John Penn, the new Governor of Pennsylvania and a future client, to join Quaker friends. He opened a shop on Union Street and eventually moved to Second Street in the Society Hill area. He made stylish mahogany furniture (sold 1788; e.g. Philadelphia, PA, Cliveden Mus.; armchair, Winterthur, DE, Mus. & Gdns) for the governor’s mansion at Lansdowne, PA, and many of the most prominent families in the city owned his work, including the Mifflins, the Whartons, and the Chew family at Cliveden. The parlour suite he made for John Cadwalader carved by James Reynolds and the firm of Bernard and Jugiez in 1770–71 was among the most elaborate ever produced in the colonies (pole screen, Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.).

A Quaker and Loyalist, Affleck refused to participate in the Revolution (...

Article

Jean-Dominique Augarde

(d Paris, March 22, 1772).

French cabinetmaker of German birth. About 1749 he became Marchand Ebéniste Privilégié du Roy Suivant la Cour et Conseils de Sa Majesté. He was active during the reign of Louis XV and was the only French cabinetmaker who was equally competent in both the Louis XV and Neo-classical styles. His pieces were few but of an extremely high standard; he employed fine wood marquetry, Japanese lacquer and Boulle marquetry, as well as producing rigorous bronzes. Although he was little known to the general public of his own day, such leading dealers as Léger Bertin, Hébert, Charles Darnault, Lazare Duvaux, Poirier and Claude-François Julliot gave him commissions, and through them he was patronized by a fashionable élite. His extant works in the Louis XV style include desks fitted with porcelain plaques, a series of sumptuous marquetry commodes (e.g. c. 1755; Toledo, OH, Mus. A.) and an astonishing upright writing-table (1758...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German family of decorative designers. Brothers Paul Amadeus (fl 1737–52) and Johann Adolf (fl c. 1743) both worked with the Bavarian court architect François de Cuvilliés on Schloss Brühl, a German Electoral castle halfway between Bonn and Cologne; they worked on the interiors of the Falkenlust (...

Article

Bombé  

Gordon Campbell

[Fr.: ‘swollen’]

Having an outward swelling curve. The term is used with particular reference to French Rococo chests of drawers, which first appear in the bombé shape in the 1740s. The swollen section is normally in the upper half; when it is in the lower half, it is sometimes known as ‘kettle shape’. In colonial America bombé furniture was mostly made in Massachusetts, primarily in Boston but also in centres such as Salem. In American bombé the swollen part is in the lower section in forms such as chests- of-drawers, desk and bookcases, chest-on-chests and dressing tables.

G. T. Vincent: ‘The Bombe Furniture of Boston’, Boston Furniture of the Eighteenth Century, ed. W. M. Whitehill, B. Jobeand J. L. Fairbanks (Boston, 1974), pp. 137–96.M. S. Podmaniczky and others: ‘Two Massachusetts Bombe Desk-and-bookcases’, Mag. Ant., 145 (May 1994), pp. 724–31M. K. Brown: ‘Topping off Thomas Dawes’s Desk-and-bookcase’, Mag. Ant., 157/ 5 (May 2000), pp. 788–95...

Article

L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...

Article

(b nr Freiburg im Breisgau; d Paris, March 6, 1785).

French cabinetmaker of German birth. Although nothing is known about his training, he was working in the workshop of Jean-François Oeben when he became the latter’s brother-in-law in 1759. He became a maître-ébéniste on 30 July 1766. He set up a workshop in the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, Paris, and produced luxurious furniture, which was sold by the dealers Simon-Philippe Poirier, Dominique Daguerre and Darnault to a distinguished clientele including the Comtesse de Provence, the Herzogin von Saxe-Teschen, Louise-Jeanne de Durfort, the Duchesse de Mazarin, the Marquise de Brunoy and the daughters of Louis XV, who decorated the Château Bellevue in Paris with some of Carlin’s most beautiful, lacquered furniture. Carlin was very assured in his use of materials and choice of bronzes. These characteristics are best illustrated in his construction of numerous pieces of furniture inset with porcelain plaques from the factory of Sèvres. His masterpieces include two commodes (...

Article

Bruce Tattersall

(b Exeter, 1711; d London, c. 1783).

English cabinetmaker. It is likely that he was apprenticed to his older brother Otho Channon (bapt 1698; d 1756), a chairmaker, in 1726. By 1737 he had established a cabinetmaking business in St Martin’s Lane, London. A spectacular pair of bookcases at Powderham Castle, near Exeter, Devon, bear brass plates engraved ‘J Channon Fecit 1740’. They are of architectural character featuring inlaid brass linear designs, arabesques and grotesques in a retardataire style associated with Jean Bérain I and are further embellished with highly finished, Rococo gilt-brass mounts in a style reminiscent of German, especially Dresden, furniture. On the stylistic evidence of engraved brass inlay combined with a flamboyant repertoire of ornamental mounts representing dolphins, satyr and female masks, foliage and waterfalls etc, other pieces are attributed to the Channon workshop, including a library desk (c. 1740; London, V&A) and the Murray writing-cabinet now in Temple Newsam House, Leeds. The latter masterwork embodies all the elements of the Powderham bookcases plus a plethora of drawers and concealed compartments, the pediment surmounted by classical figures in gilt bronze. The mounts feature satyrs and petrified fountains. The possibility of a connection with Germany arises from his father’s Christian name, Otho, and his mother’s maiden name, Sone, which may be German ...

Article

James Yorke

English family of cabinetmakers. (1) Thomas Chippendale (i) probably learnt his craft in Yorkshire before establishing a cabinetmaking firm in London in the mid-18th century. His fame rests on his designs for Rococo and Neo-classical furniture. His son (2) Thomas Chippendale (ii) continued to run the family firm into the 19th century.

G. Beard and C. Gilbert, eds: Dictionary of English Furniture Makers, 1660–1840 (Leeds, 1986)

James Yorke

(bapt Otley, W. Yorks, June 5, 1718; bur London, Nov 13, 1779).

His father, John Chippendale (1690–1768), was a joiner. Little is known about Thomas’s early life, but he probably received some training from his father and later from Richard Wood (c. 1707–72), a York cabinetmaker. In his twenties Thomas moved to London; the earliest recorded reference to his presence there is his marriage to Catherine Redshaw at St George’s Chapel, Mayfair, on 19 May 1749...

Article

Geoffrey Beard

(b ?London, c. 1710; fl 1740–60).

English stuccoist. He is first recorded working in 1740 in Edinburgh for the architect William Adam at Drum House and the palace of Holyroodhouse; his work at the latter has not survived. There are numerous mentions of Clayton in the Hamilton manuscripts at Lennoxlove, Lothian (Box 127), which reveal he was employed in the 1740s by James Douglas-Hamilton, 6th Duke of Hamilton (1724–58), both at Holyroodhouse and at Hamilton Palace (destr.), where he also decorated the imposing Châtelherault garden pavilion (rest. 1988). Clayton’s major documented work (1747–51) was undertaken at Blair Castle, Strathclyde, for James Murray, 2nd Duke of Atholl (?1690–1764). The dining-room (c. 1750), one of the finest interiors in Scotland, includes Clayton’s hybrid of Baroque and Rococo plasterwork. The reclining stucco figures over the doors may have been the work of the Italian stuccoist Francesco Vassalli (fl 1724–63...

Article

William Garner

(fl Dublin, 1755–72).

Stuccoist, active in Ireland. In 1755 he was engaged by Bartholomew Mosse (1712–59), Master Builder of Dublin’s Rotunda Hospital, to ‘execute the stucco-work which is to be done in the chapel’. He was further employed in 1757 to ‘execute the stucco-work of the altar-piece … according to the plan and draft made by him’. In the Rotunda accounts he is described as a ‘statuary and stucco-man’. This is significant since the modelling of the figures in the chapel is by a different hand from that of the framework, foliage and other ornament, and there would appear to have been two plasterers at work on the background, both of them less assured than the modeller of the figures. The chapel’s ceiling plasterwork is full of Rococo movement, where allegorical groups of Faith, Hope and Charity are framed by angelic caryatids bearing texts. These caryatids have decisive gestures and keen expressions and yet wear an air of languid elegance, while the putti heads might easily have been modelled from those of babies in the Hospital. The ceiling’s centre and four corner panels were left empty in order to receive paintings by Giovanni Battista Cipriani, but these were never executed. The altarpiece itself displays angels adoring a lamb and is placed against a curtain hanging from a lambrequin. No further stucco work by Cramillion has been identified. However, in ...

Article

Jean-Dominique Augarde

(b Amiens, Dec 16, 1685; d Paris, Jan 10, 1768).

French cabinetmaker and sculptor. He was taught by his father, François Cressent, a sculptor in Amiens, and became a maître-ébéniste on 9 January 1708. He subsequently became a pupil of François Girardon and became a maître sculpteur in the Académie de Saint-Luc, Paris, on 14 August 1714. He obtained the title of Ebéniste du Régent in 1719, which allowed him to trade as a cabinetmaker free from guild restrictions. The richest French patrons, the Portuguese Court and many German princes bought furniture from him. His work is of exceptional quality and epitomizes the Régence and early Louis XV styles, to which he remained faithful throughout his career. The forms of his pieces were perfectly curved and rendered sumptuous by abundant, virtuoso bronze mounts and emphatically serrated agraffe ornaments and mouldings. His lavish mounts to some extent obscured the restrained veneering or geometric marquetry, for which he almost always used rose-wood, purple-wood or satin-wood. Above all, however, he was a sculptor, and he contravened guild restrictions by modelling the bronzes that adorn his furniture himself; these included terminals depicting the ...

Article

(b ?Brussels, 1689; d Paris, Jan 30, 1776).

French cabinetmaker of Flemish origin. He worked independently before becoming a maître-ébéniste on 29 July 1738. He mainly worked for the Garde Meuble de la Couronne, through his colleagues Antoine-Robert Gaudreaus, Gilles Joubert and Jean-François Oeben and through such dealers as Hébert. His extant works, stamped with his mark m criaerd, include luxurious furniture, in general characterized by very turbulent forms and exuberant, fantastic decoration. Chequered marquetry or, more rarely, floral marquetry was used, as well as some varnished panels, either imitating Chinese lacquer or in vernis Martin with European decoration. In particular, he made beautiful commodes, including one (Versailles, Château) for the Dauphin’s Cabinet de Retraite, which is typical of his work, as is the commode (Paris, Louvre) decorated with blue and silvered-bronze birds made for Madame de Mailly.

F. de Salverte: Les Ebénistes du XVIIIème siècle, leurs oeuvres et leurs marques (Paris, 1923, rev. 5/1962)J. Viaux: Bibliographie du meuble (Mobilier civil français)...

Article

(b Paris, c. 1715–20; d after 1783).

French cabinetmaker and dealer. He was the most famous member of a family of cabinetmakers; his father, François Faizelot Delorme (1691–1768), and his brothers Jean-Louis Faizelot Delorme and Alexis Faizelot Delorme were all maîtres-ébénistes. Adrien became a maître-ébéniste on 22 June 1748 and was a juror of his guild from 1768 to 1770. He stamped his work delorme. He made and sold luxury furniture in the Louis XV style, decorated with japanning either in imitation of Chinese lacquer (e.g. Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) or with European decoration (e.g. Waddesdon Manor, Bucks, NT). He also carried out sumptuous floral marquetry (e.g. Paris, Petit Pal.). His most distinguished work consisted of small pieces of furniture (e.g. Paris, Louvre; London, V&A; Washington, DC, Hillwood Mus.) embellished with floral marquetry or inlays of scrolls and foliation executed in end-grain wood on a dark-veined, light-wood ground forming a chevron pattern (e.g. Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). His work in the Neo-classical style, however, failed to impress connoisseurs....

Article

Jean-Dominique Augarde

(b Paris, c. 1670; d June 25, 1732).

French cabinetmaker. He became a maître-ébéniste in Paris c. 1700 and was one of the first Parisian cabinetmakers to stamp his work. He operated a large-scale business from two workshops, one in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, which he managed himself, and one in the Rue Saint-Honoré, which he placed under the direction of his son-in-law Louis-Simon Painsun (1700–c. 1748), who used the mark l.s.p. Doirat’s period of activity coincided with the evolution of the Louis XV style, and most of his works are a combination of this and other earlier styles. Although some of his furniture (e.g. pier-table, Bamberg, Neue Residenz, Staatsgal.) derives its form from furniture by André Charles Boulle, in general it reflects the influence of Gilles-Marie Oppendord, A. Vassé (1681–1736) and Nicolas Pineau. In particular, Pineau’s influence can be seen in the composition of the central cartouche on some commodes (e.g. of 1725–30...

Article

(b Pontoise, April 8, 1694; d Paris, Oct 23, 1763).

French cabinetmaker. He was an independent workman before becoming a maître-ébéniste on 5 September 1742 and a juror of his guild from 1752 to 1754. He was an exacting and talented cabinetmaker with a cosmopolitan clientele, specializing in luxury items decorated with Japanese lacquer and marquetry (for illustration see Vernis Martin). His pieces were often sober, and this complemented the power, beauty and quality of his vigorous and exuberant bronzes with their opposing Rococo curves in the Louis XV style. His stamped works include a corner-cupboard (c. 1745; Malibu, CA, Getty Mus.) for Count Jan Klemens, based on a design by Nicolas Pineau, a lacquered bureau for Louis-Philippe, Duc d’Orléans (1725–85), and the ‘de Vergennes’ marquetry bureau (both Paris, Louvre), a commode (Genoa, Pal. Reale) for Louis XV’s daughter Louise-Elizabeth (1727–59) and a large lean-to secrétaire with doors and windows (1770; Waddesdon Manor, Bucks, NT). After Dubois’s death, his son ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1710; d 1775).

French furniture-maker based in Paris. He specialized in clock cases in the Rococo style, decorated either in wood marquetry or in the brass and tortoiseshell marquetry in the style of André-Charles Boulle. He also sold bronze cases, but as ébénistes were not allowed to work in bronze, he was probably acting as a dealer....

Article

Jean-Nérée Ronfort

(b Paris, 1682; d Paris, May 6, 1746).

French cabinetmaker. He became a maître-ébéniste c. 1710 and from 1724 became the main supplier to the Garde Meuble de la Couronne. From 1726 until his death, first as Ebéniste de la Reine and then as Ebéniste du Roi, he exercised a virtual monopoly over commissions intended for royal residences, most of which he subcontracted. His strong, personal style is evident in his work, although only about six pieces remain unmodified. Apart from a medal-cabinet (1738; Versailles, Château), on which he collaborated and obviously submitted to the designs of the Slodtz brothers, two of his works are very important. The style of a marquetry commode (1739; London, Wallace; for illustration see Commode) with bronze mounts by Jacques Caffiéri suggests that he had escaped the Slodtzs’ supervision. It follows the dictates of the Louis XV style, employing asymmetrical designs and exaggerated curves and Rococo decoration. The exuberance of this piece was followed by a return to balanced forms, as shown in a lacquered commode (...

Article

António Filipe Pimentel

[Giovanni]

(b Milan, 1719; d Lisbon, 1781).

Italian sculptor and stuccoist, active in Portugal. Sometime between 1740 and 1750 he served Ferdinand VI of Spain as a military designer but fled to Portugal after being involved in a murder. His first commission was for the plaster decoration (before 1755; destr. 1755) of the ceiling of the church of the Mártires (Martyrs), Lisbon, which involved using moulds for the Rococo motifs. He was skilled in modelling stucco, wax and clay, and his lively use of Rococo ornament includes shell forms, flowers and asymmetrical motifs.

Grossi benefited from the patronage of Sebastian Carvalho e Mello, 1st Marquês de Pombal, and among projects commissioned by the Marquês were the stucco ceilings of his palace at Oeiras (c. 1770), now the property of the Gulbenkian Foundation. In 1755 Grossi carried out decorative work in the houses of the Machadinho family in Lisbon, with the assistance of Pedro Chantoforo and of his cousin ...

Article

(b Vocklabruck; bapt Sept 7, 1691; d St Florian, March 14, 1775).

Austrian stuccoist. He came from a family of stuccoists and began his earliest documented work, the decoration (1718–22) of the pilgrimage church of the Holy Trinity at Stadl-Paura, near Lambach, with his father, Johann Georg Holzinger (d 1738), although he finished it alone. At the same time he was working at the abbeys of Lambach and St Florian (from 1719). The stuccowork (1719) in the abbot’s antechamber at St Florian is typical of Holzinger’s early work, in which the ribbon work usually flows out in C-shaped loops ending in scrolled acanthus leaves. The angular shape of the loops, producing squares, is also typical. From 1722 to 1724 he made the splendid atlantids in the library at Metten Abbey. The striding figures seem to carry the ceiling with ease: their fluttering garments typify south German Rococo art. Holzinger moved to St Florian in 1724...

Article

James Yorke

[Mayhew and Ince]

English partnership of cabinetmakers formed in 1758 by William Ince (b ?London, c. 1738; d London, 6 Jan 1804) and John Mayhew (b 1736; d London, May 1811). Ince was apprenticed to John West (fl 1743–58) of Covent Garden, London, from 1752 until West’s death. As the usual age to begin an apprenticeship was 14, he was probably born towards the end of the 1730s. In 1758 Ince formed a partnership with Mayhew. They operated from Broad Street, Carnaby Market, an address formerly occupied by Charles Smith (fl 1746–59), whose premises they had purchased. In Mortimer’s Universal Director (1763) they were described as ‘cabinet-makers, carvers and upholders’, and by 1778 they were styling themselves ‘manufacturers of plate glass’ (Ince’s father and brother were glass-grinders).

In 1759 the partners began to issue in serial form The Universal System of Household Furniture...