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David Bindman

(b London, Nov 28, 1757; d London, Aug 12, 1827).

English printmaker, painter and poet. His reputation as a visual artist increased during the 20th century to the extent that his art is as well known as his poetry (see fig.). Yet in his own mind Blake never completely separated the two, and his most original work is to be found in hand-printed books of prophecy, which developed a personal mythology of limitless intellectual ambition. In these books, text and design are completely integrated in what he called ‘illuminated’ printing. He also made many pen and watercolour drawings, prints in various media and a small number of tempera paintings, but even in these his broader aims were primarily theological and philosophical: he saw the arts in all their forms as offering insights into the metaphysical world and therefore potentially redemptive of a humanity he believed to have fallen into materialism and doubt.


Jens Christian Jensen

(b Greifswald, Sept 5, 1774; d Dresden, May 7, 1840).

German painter, draughtsman, and printmaker. Along with Phillip Otto Runge, he was the leading artist of the German Romantic movement, notable especially for his symbolic and atmospheric treatment of landscape (see fig.).

After receiving a general education with a private tutor, Friedrich studied drawing and etching from 1790 to 1794 with Johann Gottfried Quistorp (1755–1835), drawing teacher at the university in Greifswald. From 1794 until 1798 he studied at the Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in Copenhagen, where his most important teachers were Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard, Jens Juel, Christian August Lorentzen (1749–1828), and Johannes Wiedewelt (1759–1802). The influence of Danish painting, especially that of Juel and Abildgaard, was strong and is evident even in his later years; Juel’s landscapes were notable for their clarity of composition and Abildgaard encouraged Friedrich’s enthusiasm for the mythology and history of the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples. Friedrich swiftly developed a confident and disciplined manner, as seen in the pen-and-wash drawing ...


Susan Morris

(b London, Feb 18, 1775; d London, Nov 9, 1802).

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. With his rival, J. M. W. Turner, he extended the technical possibilities of watercolour and in doing so demonstrated that watercolours could have the visual impact and emotional range of oils. Although close in style throughout the 1790s, by 1800 Turner and Girtin were beginning to diverge: whereas the former dissolved forms to express his idea of Nature in a state of flux, the latter sought out a landscape’s underlying patterns to convey his awe of Nature’s permanence as well as its grandeur. Girtin’s reduction of landscape to simple and monumental forms, his panoramic compositions, his bold palette of browns and blues, and his sensitivity to natural effects such as cloud formations, were to influence watercolour painters as diverse as John Varley, Cornelius Varley, Peter De Wint and John Sell Cotman.

Girtin was the son of a brushmaker of Huguenot descent. In 1788 he was apprenticed to the topographical watercolour painter ...


(b Fuendetodos, March 30, 1746; d Bordeaux, April 16, 1828).

Spanish painter, draughtsman and printmaker. The most important Spanish artist of the last quarter of the 18th and first quarter of the 19th centuries, he served three generations of Spanish kings. Stylistically his work spans the period from the late Rococo to Romanticism and, at the last, presages Impressionism. During his six active decades he produced some 700 paintings, 900 drawings and almost 300 prints, which reflect his rapidly changing world: the Bourbon Spain of Charles III and the reign of Charles IV, the Enlightenment, the French occupation, the turmoil of the Peninsular War, the despotic reign of Ferdinand VII (and the Inquisition) and Spain’s few years of constitutional government. Appreciation of his prints by non-Spaniards even during his lifetime soon ensured his reputation abroad. Known by 1801 as the ‘Apelles of Spain’, he has been regarded since as a major master of international stature and as the first ‘modern’ artist....


Peter Walch

(b Eastbourne, Sept 17, 1740; d London, Feb 4, 1779).

English painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was closely involved with the Society of Artists of Great Britain, becoming its president in 1774, and his flamboyant personality, radical politics and romantic penchant for depictions of picturesque banditti led contemporaries to perceive him as a latter-day Salvator Rosa. Mortimer’s works include portraiture, decorative interiors and book illustration, but he was first and foremost a history painter. Unlike most fellow artists in this genre, however, he derived much of his subject-matter from Anglo-Saxon history rather than from antiquity.

Mortimer was the son of an excise officer, while his uncle, Roger Mortimer (1700–69), was a painter of portraits and altarpieces (e.g. Moses and Aaron, 1721; St Clement’s, Hastings, E. Sussex); it may have been this example that first drew his nephew to the visual arts. By 1757 Mortimer was in London, working in Thomas Hudson‘s studio; his fellow pupils included Joseph Wright (i), who became a lifelong friend. Mortimer, characteristically, moved on before the end of his three-year term with Hudson—in ...


Judy Egerton and Lin Barton

(b Liverpool, Aug 25, 1724; d London, July 10, 1806).

English painter, draughtsman, and printmaker. His study of anatomy enabled him to paint horses, dogs, and wild animals with unsurpassed truth to nature, while his innate sense of design enabled him to achieve graceful, rhythmic compositions. His contemporary reputation was chiefly based on portraits of horses and dogs; but he also painted human portraits, conversation pieces, and imaginative subjects with animals. His keen empirical instinct led him to experiment with enamel painting and to the perfection of a fastidiously beautiful mixed-method printmaking technique.

As an artist Stubbs was largely self-taught. Until he was about 16 he worked with his father, a currier in Liverpool. He then (probably in 1741) worked briefly under Hamlet Winstanley (1694–1756), an artist from Warrington, Lancs, copying pictures in the collection of Edward Stanley, 11th Earl of Derby (1689–1776), at Knowsley Hall, near Liverpool; disliking copying, Stubbs left to teach himself to paint at home. He moved to York ...


(b London, April 23, 1775; d Chelsea [now in London], Dec 19, 1851).

British painter and printmaker (see fig.) He dominated British landscape painting throughout the first half of the 19th century. He established a reputation in the Royal Academy, London, first as a topographical watercolourist and then within a few years as a painter of Sublime and historical landscapes.

Turner’s ambition was to confirm the status of landscape as a serious art form, in the wake of Richard Wilson, and he always perceived his position as being in direct line from the 17th-century classicists Poussin and, especially, Claude. His later exploration of effects of light in the pursuit of new demonstrations of sublimity has led to his purposes being confounded with those of the Impressionists; but in reality he remained true to earlier conceptions of great art, as formulated by such theorists as Jonathan Richardson and, above all, Joshua Reynolds, never attempting spontaneity or informality on the scale of exhibition pieces as did his contemporary John Constable. The large body of his sketches and studies in oil and watercolour, however, which, after wrangles over his will, was given to the British nation in ...


Fransje Kuyvenhoven

(b Amsterdam, bapt July 10, 1768; d Rome, Sept 4, 1839).

Dutch painter and printmaker, active in Italy. He studied from 1783 at the Stadstekenakademie in Amsterdam and subsequently with the wallpaper painter Jurriaan Andriessen. The financial aid of the Amsterdam art collector D. Versteegh (1751–1822) enabled him to depart in 1788 for Rome to obtain further training in landscape painting. Voogd’s works from his first Roman years are primarily drawings with coloured wash in the typical late 18th-century linear style; an expressive example is River Landscape near Narni (1789; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.). Owing to the absence of Dutch colleagues in Rome, Voogd spent much of his time with the Franco-Flemish and German artists’ colonies there. Internationally famous landscape painters, such as Nicolas-Didier Boguet, Johann Christian Reinhart and Johann Martin von Rohden, were among his close friends, and the work of the last, in particular, is often mistaken for that of Voogd. It is apparent, from one of the infrequent letters that Voogd sent to Versteegh in the Netherlands, that he made numerous drawings of Rome and its environs (Tivoli, Lake Albano, Castel Gandolfo, Lake Nemi etc). Some of these drawings, executed mostly in pencil and black chalk, consist of motifs taken directly from nature, such as trees and rocks; others portray views. Both categories are represented in Amsterdam (Hist. Mus. and Rijksmus.). Voogd claimed that his great exemplar, in addition to nature, was Claude Lorrain; from shortly after ...


Edward J. Nygren

(b London, Oct 23, 1769; d Cheshunt, Herts, Nov 17, 1859).

English painter and engraver. He was the most important animal painter of his generation. Many of his dynamic compositions depict horses, dogs or wild animals in agitated emotional states, the sense of movement being reinforced by vigorous brushwork and strong colours. With their sweeping landscapes and dramatic skies, his canvases epitomize Romanticism. Not content to excel merely as an animal painter, Ward also produced portraits, landscapes and genre and history paintings of varying quality. A prolific artist, he was a frequent exhibitor at the British Institution and at the Royal Academy, London.

Ward was trained as an engraver by his brother William Ward (1766–1826) and John Raphael Smith and was in great demand as a mezzotinter at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th when he translated into prints works by William Beechey, John Hoppner, Thomas Lawrence and others. He began working in oil around ...