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Patrick Conner

(b Maidstone, Kent, April 10, 1767; d Maidstone, July 23, 1816).

English painter, engraver, draughtsman and museum official. The son of a coachbuilder, he was apprenticed to Julius Caesar Ibbetson before enrolling in 1784 at the Royal Academy Schools, London. In 1792 he accepted the post (previously declined by Ibbetson) of draughtsman to George, 1st Earl Macartney, on his embassy to China. As the embassy returned by inland waterway from Beijing to Canton, Alexander made detailed sketches of the Chinese hinterland—something achieved by no British artist previously and by very few subsequently. These sketches formed the basis for finished watercolours (e.g. Ping-tze Muen, the Western Gate of Peking, 1799; London, BM) and for numerous engravings by both himself and others. For over fifty years his images of China were widely borrowed by book illustrators and by interior decorators in search of exotic themes.

Alexander was also a keen student of British medieval antiquities, undertaking several tours in order to make drawings of churches and monuments; many of these were reproduced in the antiquarian publications of ...


Vivian Atwater

(b 1762; d Paris, Dec 27, 1817).

French printmaker. During the last two decades of the 18th century he followed Jean-François Janinet and Louis-Marin Bonnet in popularizing the technique of multiple-plate colour printing for the progressive tonal intaglio processes of mezzotint, aquatint, stipple and crayon manner. Alix produced many illustrations of contemporary Parisian life and fashion but was best known for his colour aquatint portraits of celebrated figures of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic period. In 1789 he provided 18 sheets for an engraved portrait collection published by Levacher de Charnois, which documented members of the French National Assembly. Alix also produced colour prints of such Revolutionary heroes as Jean-Paul Marat, Marie-Joseph Chalier and Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, after pastel drawings by Jacques-Louis David and other artists. Chief among such prints, which were widely distributed to promote patriotic zeal, were Alix’s portraits of the boy heroes Joseph Barra and Agricola Viala. One of his best works of the period is a portrait of ...


David Alexander and Stephen Deuchar

English family of artists of Danish descent. The earliest member active in England was Sefferien Alken (1717–82), who was a wood-carver, gilder and stone-carver employed by William Chambers. His son (1) Samuel Alken was an engraver. Four of Samuel Alken’s sons, Samuel Alken (1784–c. 1825), (2) Henry (Thomas) Alken, George Alken (c. 1794–?1837) and Sefferien John Alken (1796–1857), were sporting artists. In the next generation Henry Alken’s sons Samuel Henry (Gordon) Alken (1810–94), known as Henry Alken junior, and Sefferien Alken (1821–73) were also artists.

Gunnis F. Siltzer: The Story of British Sporting Prints (London, 1928, rev. 1979) S. Mitchell: The Dictionary of Equestrian Artists (Woodbridge, 1985)

David Alexander

(b London, Oct 22, 1756; bur; London, Nov 9, 1815).

Engraver. He entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, as a sculptor in 1772. In 1779...


Blanca García Vega

(b Barcelona, 1768; d Madrid, Oct 20, 1841).

Spanish Catalan engraver. He was assistant professor at the Escuela de Artes, Barcelona, in 1787 and received a scholarship from the Junta de Comercio to study engraving in Madrid (1790–95) under Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1793 he was awarded first prize for engraving by the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, for his portrait of Ventura Rodríguez after the painting by Goya (1784; Stockholm, Nmus.), and in 1797 he was made an Academician. In 1803 he made the engraving the Ostrich Hunt; he also produced book illustrations, religious engravings and reproductions of paintings. His success led to his appointment as Grabador de Cámara in 1815, in which position he executed a portrait of Ferdinand VII (1821) after drawings by Vicente López y Portaña. On the death of Salvador Carmona in 1820, Ametller Rotllan was made Director de Grabado at the Real Academia, a post he held until his death....


David Tatham

(b New York, April 21, 1775; d Jersey City, NJ, Jan 17, 1870).

American wood-engraver. Anderson was the first important American wood-engraver. He was self-taught and made woodcuts for newspapers at the age of 12. Between c. 1792 and 1798, when he studied and practised medicine, he engraved wood as a secondary occupation, but following the death of his family in the yellow fever epidemic of 1798, he abandoned medicine and worked as a graphic artist. He was an early follower of Thomas Bewick’s white-line style. He usually engraved the designs of others, such as Benjamin West, but he was a skilful and original draughtsman, as can be seen in his illustrations for Durell’s edition of Homer’s Iliad (New York, 1808). He exhibited frequently at the American Academy and was a founder-member of the National Academy of Design (1825). Anderson spent his long and prolific career in New York, engraving mainly for book publishers and magazines but also producing pictorial matter for printed ephemera. He worked steadily until the late 1850s, cut his last blocks in ...


Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...


Joan Hichberger

(b London, 1775; d ?London, ?1831–3).

English painter and printmaker. At the age of nine he was taken to live in St Petersburg by his uncle, James Walker, who was an engraver in the service of Catherine II, Empress of Russia. Atkinson subsequently gained the patronage of the Empress and her son, Paul I (reg 1796–1801), executing a series of paintings on Russian history (e.g. Victory of the Cossacks of the Don over the Tartars) for them. He returned to England in 1801 and by 1808 was exhibiting as an Associate at the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, showing such literary and patriotic pictures as Shakespeare’s ‘Seven Ages’. A series of his soft-ground etchings, The Miseries of Human Life, by One of the Wretched (London, BM), was published in London in 1807. He also produced sets of engravings of military costumes, such as A Picturesque Representation of the Naval, Military and Miscellaneous Costumes of Great Britain...


P. Knolle

Dutch family of artists, originally from Flanders. The five known generations of this family start with the history painter Anthonie Barbiers (bapt Rousselaere, 14 May 1676; d Amsterdam, 1726), who was in Rome at the same time as Pieter van Bloemen and returned to the northern Netherlands, settling in Amsterdam. His younger brother Balthazar Barbiers (bapt Antwerp, 5 Dec 1685; d Antwerp, c. 1728) worked in Antwerp, where his painted ceiling decorations for the municipal council chamber are still in situ.

Anthonie’s son and pupil Pieter (Anthoniesz.) Barbiers (b Amsterdam, 1717; d Amsterdam, 7 Sept 1780) worked as a painter, draughtsman and engraver, although none of his paintings has survived. He had a wallpaper factory and designed decorations for rooms and gardens. He was particularly interested in the theatre, and his stage designs were used by theatres in Amsterdam, Leiden, The Hague and Rotterdam. Some of his work for the Amsterdam theatre was engraved by ...


David Alexander

English family of engravers. Isaac Basire (1704–68) worked as an engraver in London. His son (John) James Basire (i) (b ?London, 6 Oct 1730; d London, 6 Sept 1802) became known as an engraver of architecture and was employed on the first volume of James Stuart’s and Nicholas Revett’s The Antiquities of Athens (1762). In 1763 he travelled in Italy; around that time he succeeded George Vertue as Engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, and he became Engraver to the Royal Society in 1770. He contributed fine prints to Vetusta monumenta, produced for the Antiquaries, and other publications; he also engraved many individually issued prints, notably one after Benjamin West’s Pylades and Orestes (1766), one of the first prints of a contemporary painting published by John Boydell. This was shown in London in 1770 at the Free Society of Artists exhibition; between ...


Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...


(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...


Stephanie Nevison Brown

(b Paris, March 20, 1767; d Paris, June 11, 1842).

French painter and lithographer. In 1785 Bertin entered the Académie Royale de Peinture as a pupil of the history painter Gabriel-François Doyen. By 1788 he had become a pupil of the landscape painter Pierre-Henri de Valenciennes who directed him towards idealized Italianate landscape. Between 1785 and 1793 Bertin participated unsuccessfully in academic competitions and his official début came only in 1793 when he exhibited in the ‘open’ Salon. After 1793 he contributed consistently to the Salon until his death. In 1801 he received a Prix d’Encouragement for the Town of Pheneos. Like many of his early Salon works, it is now known only through engravings. Among his early extant Salon works are the Statue, or Interior of a Park (1800; Dijon, Mus. Magnin), View of Ronciglione (1808; Nantes, Mus. B.-A.) and Arrival of Napoleon at Ettlingen (1812; Versailles, Château).

Bertin constructed his paintings predominantly according to Poussin’s principles of idyllic landscape and drew on stock compositional devices from the master’s repertory. The results are decorative but distinguished by a marked correctness and balance in design, severe draughtsmanship and harmonious colour. It was probably their decorative quality that led to the state purchase of many works for official palaces such as the Grand Trianon at Versailles and Fontainebleau, and for provincial museums. Further official recognition came in ...



(b Paris, May 23, 1756; d Paris, March 23, 1822).

French engraver. At baptism he was erroneously registered as Jean-Guillaume instead of Charles-Clément and has consequently been known by two different sets of Christian names, while his assumed surname was taken from his father’s nickname. He received his earliest training in Jean-Baptiste Le Prince’s studio; at the age of 14 he enrolled in the studio of the engraver Jean-Georges Wille, who thought highly of him and of his work, particularly admiring his draughtsmanship. Like his teacher, Bervic worked entirely in burin, which resulted in a severity of style comparable to that of his master. He received numerous prizes and honours. On 24 September 1774 the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris awarded him first prize for drawing from the nude in the quarterly competition for students. On 25 May 1784 he was approved (agréé) as a member by the Académie. In 1792 he won the prize awarded for the encouragement of line-engraving and in ...


Colin Campbell

(b nr Eltringham, Northumb, 10 or Aug 12, 1753; d Gateshead, Nov 8, 1828).

English engraver. The son of a farmer and colliery worker, Bewick had a rural upbringing. He was apprenticed at the age of 14 to Ralph Beilby (1743–1817), a Newcastle trade engraver who taught him how to inscribe and decorate silver and other metals and the art of copperplate engraving. In his youth Bewick learnt to engrave end-grain boxwood, a medium whose potential had still to be developed. In 1776 he received a premium from the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts for a series of wood-engravings illustrating fables, and later the same year he travelled to London, where he worked for the engraver Isaac Taylor the elder. He returned to Newcastle in 1777, entering into partnership with Beilby.

Bewick’s professional life was subsequently devoted principally to jobbing work on metal (the engraving of rings, boxes, salvers, cutlery, clockfaces and so on), but his developing skill as a wood-engraver became known, and this led, in the 1770s, to commissions to illustrate a number of children’s books published by the Newcastle printer ...


William Hauptman

(b Winterthur, Oct 7, 1763; d Aussersihl, Schwyz, April 10, 1830).

Swiss painter and engraver. He studied under Johann Rudolf Schellenburg in Winterthur and then, in 1778, with Heinrich Rieter (1751–1818) in Berne, where he was also influenced by the topographical landscapes of Johann Ludwig Aberli. He was adept at executing such sharply detailed engravings of Swiss cities as View of Lucerne (c. 1790; e.g. Lucerne, Zentbib.), which he sold to tourists. In 1802 he published an important series of views of Switzerland, which were widely circulated. His skill as a painter of animals was sometimes combined with his rendering of the landscape, as in View of the Lake of Bienne (c. 1800; Winterthur, Kstmus.). In 1807 he taught drawing in Basle and in 1814 was active in the area around Lake Constance. His paintings are often characterized by warm colours and frequently capture the atmosphere of late afternoon, as in Murg on the Lake of Walen...


David Bindman

(b London, Nov 28, 1757; d London, Aug 12, 1827).

English printmaker, painter and poet. His reputation as a visual artist increased during the 20th century to the extent that his art is as well known as his poetry (see fig.). Yet in his own mind Blake never completely separated the two, and his most original work is to be found in hand-printed books of prophecy, which developed a personal mythology of limitless intellectual ambition. In these books, text and design are completely integrated in what he called ‘illuminated’ printing. He also made many pen and watercolour drawings, prints in various media and a small number of tempera paintings, but even in these his broader aims were primarily theological and philosophical: he saw the arts in all their forms as offering insights into the metaphysical world and therefore potentially redemptive of a humanity he believed to have fallen into materialism and doubt.


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b La Bassée, nr Lille, July 5, 1761; d Paris, Jan 4, 1845).

French painter and printmaker. The son of a wood-carver, Arnould Boilly (1764–79), he lived in Douai until 1778, when he went to Arras to receive instruction in trompe l’oeil painting from Dominique Doncre (1743–1820). He moved to Paris in 1785. Between 1789 and 1791 he executed eight small scenes on moralizing and amorous subjects for the Avignon collector Esprit-Claude-Franĉois Calvet (1728–1810), including The Visit (1789; Saint-Omer, Mus. Hôtel Sandelin). He exhibited at the Salon between 1791 and 1824 and received a gold medal at the Salon of 1804. From the beginning his genre subjects were extremely popular with the public and collectors. In 1833, at a time when his popularity was declining, he was admitted to the Légion d’honneur and the Institut de France.

His early works (1790–1800) show a taste for moralizing, amorous and sentimental subjects inherited from Jean Honoré Fragonard and Jean-Baptiste Greuze that combine anecdote and a delight in the tactile qualities of textiles. Boilly sought the ‘sensibilité’ and the ‘émotion’ dear to Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot. His mannered colouring and precise techniques are almost those of a miniaturist, and recall such Dutch 17th-century genre painters as ...


Marie-Félicie Pérez

(b Lyon, Nov 30, 1736; d Lyon, March 1, 1810).

French printmaker, draughtsman and painter. Apart from studying briefly at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin in Lyon, he was self-taught. His first concentrated phase as a printmaker was 1758–64, during which he published three suites of etchings. Boissieu spent 1765–6 in Italy in the company of Louis-Alexandre, Duc de la Rochefoucauld (1743–93), returning to Lyon via the Auvergne with a cache of his own landscape drawings. He remained in Lyon, where he published further prints at intervals, making occasional trips to Paris and Geneva. Boissieu’s prints earned him the reputation of being the last representative of the older etching tradition—he particularly admired Rembrandt van Rijn—at a time when engraving was being harnessed for commercial prints, and lithography was coming into use. For his landscape etchings Boissieu drew upon the scenery of the Roman Campagna, the watermills, windmills and rustic figures of the Dutch school (notably Salomon van Ruysdael) and the countryside around Lyon. He also engraved ...


Fintan Cullen

Irish family of painters and engravers. Active from the 1780s to the 1860s, the Brocas family included five landscape painters who worked on a small scale, largely in the media of watercolour and engraving. Views of Dublin and other Irish towns and paintings of animals and antiquities predominate, together with engraved portraiture. Henry Brocas sr (1762–1837) was a prolific engraver and an occasional landscape painter. His achievements in landscape were recognized in 1801, when he was appointed Master of the Landscape and Ornament School of the [Royal] Dublin Society. As an engraver, he is memorable for his many portraits of Dublin figures of the late 18th century. Many of these were published in the Hibernian Magazine. He had four sons who became artists, of whom James Henry Brocas (c. 1790–1846) is remembered chiefly as an animal painter. Like his father and brothers, he exhibited at the Society of Artists of Ireland in Dublin between ...


Hannelore Hägele

(b Geisslingen, Feb 7, 1742; d Durlach, 1811).

German medallist and engraver. In 1768 he began his career in Augsburg, where he exhibited medals of the municipal curators Langenmantel and Amman and of Paul von Stetten. He later went to Karlsruhe, where he became court medallist and die-engraver; he also worked in Durlach. Stylistically, his medals, often initialled j.m.b., closely resemble those of Franz Andreas Schega and Johann Karl Hedlinger. Portrait medals of Charles V, Duke of Württemberg and Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden were Bückle’s best works. He also executed the commemorative medal of Count Demetrius Galitzin (1793) and a silver medal (1773; Domanig, no. 771) depicting a hunting scene, awarded as a prize by the School of Forestry and Hunting Science. His pupil J. H. Boltschhauser became a medal engraver to the Mannheim court.

H. Bolzenthal: Skizzen zur Kunstgeschichte der modernen Medaillen-Arbeit (1429–1840) (Berlin, 1840) K. Domanig: Die deutsche Medaille in kunst- und kulturhistorischer Hinsicht...