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Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...

Article

Paul Niell

(b Torreblanca, 1748; d Mexico City, 1807). Spanish engraver, active also in Mexico. Fabregat was born in Torreblanca in the province of Castellón in 1748. He began his studies at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos in Valencia. He later obtained a prize in engraving from the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid and in 1774 was named ‘Académico Supernumerario’ by this institution and by the Academia de S Carlos in 1781. He engraved for some important printing presses in Spain, including those of Antonio Sancha, Joaquín Ibarra, the Imprenta Real in Madrid, and that of Benito Monfort in Valencia. By royal order, on 21 November 1787, the Crown appointed him director of metal engraving at the Real Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City, founded in 1783, after Fernando Selma declined the position. Fabregat embarked for the Americas in 1788. He is well known for the engraving that Manuel Toussaint titles the ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(fl Madrid, 1793–1828).

Spanish engraver. He trained at the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, where he was a pupil of Manuel Salvador Carmona. In 1795, under Salvador Carmona’s direction, he copied Gerard Edelinck’s print of the Holy Family, a painting (Venice, Pin. Manfrediniana) formerly attributed to Leonardo. Fernández Noseret engraved St Cecilia (Madrid, Pal. Real) by Guido Reni, after the drawing by León Bueno (1793); St Joseph and St Lawrence after the paintings by Alonso Cano; and 13 plates after drawings by Antonio Carnicero for Colección de las principales suertes de una corrida de toros (Madrid, 1795). He collaborated on Brigada de artillería volante (Madrid, 1796) and in 1828 copied two 18th-century prints: St Barnabas by Francisco Muntaner Moner and St Ferdinand (Madrid, Prado) by Murillo, the latter after the engraving by Salvador Carmona.

E. Paez Rios: Repertorio de grabados españoles de la Biblioteca Nacional, 1 (Madrid, 1981), p. 344...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Cádiz, ?1750; d Guatemala City, Sept 15, 1809).

Spanish engraver and architect, active in Guatemala. He studied in Cádiz around 1760, and in 1773 he moved to Madrid, where he was probably taught by the noted engraver Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1778 he was appointed assistant engraver of the Real Casa de Moneda in Guatemala, where he arrived the next year. Following the death of the principal engraver, he was confirmed in this post in 1783 and held it until his death. Besides his work as engraver of coin dies and medal stamps, Garci-Aguirre made numerous fine copperplate engravings for books (e.g. P. Ximena: Reales Exequias por el Señor Don Carlos III, Guatemala City, 1790) and other publications. In Guatemala he revived the art of engraving, working in the Neo-classical style, which he was one of the first to introduce to the country. He soon became involved with architectural works in connection with the building of the new capital of Guatemala City, first in the Real Casa de Moneda and then on other royal projects. From ...

Article

Kelly Donahue-Wallace

[Gil y Pérez, Gerónimo Antonio]

(b Zamora, Spain, Nov 3, 1731; d Mexico City, April 18, 1798).

Spanish printmaker, medallist, and type designer, active in Spain and Mexico. He was one of the first students at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid (founded 1752), which awarded him a pension to train as a medallist from 1754 to 1758 under Spain’s Engraver General, Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1760 the academy named Gil Académico de Mérito for his medal-engraving skills.

Upon completing his studies, Gil briefly served as drawing instructor at the S Fernando academy but worked principally making copperplate engravings, letter press type, and medals. He was a frequent contributor to luxury books sponsored by the Real Academia de Historia and the S Fernando academy, including the so-called prince’s edition of Don Quixote (1780) and Antigüedades árabes de España (1787). He spent more than 15 years designing type for the Real Biblioteca, and was credited by his peers with rescuing the Spanish type-making industry. The finest works he carried out in Spain included the engraved illustrations for ...

Article

Richard H. Saunders

(b Boston, MA, Dec 7, 1727; d Margate, Kent, Sept 16, 1792).

English painter, engraver and auctioneer of American birth. In 1742 he was apprenticed to the Boston engraver Thomas Johnston, though he abandoned engraving for painting (e.g. the group portrait of his own family, the Greenwood-Lee Family, c. 1747; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.). In 1752 he went to Paramaribo, Surinam, where in the space of five years he painted 113 portraits, which he recorded along with numerous other events and observations in a notebook. While there he painted his best-known work, Sea Captains Carousing in Surinam (c. 1752–8; St Louis, MO, A. Mus.). It is the only tavern scene conversation piece painted in colonial America and was most likely inspired by a print of William Hogarth’s Midnight Modern Conversation (New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A).

Greenwood remained in Surinam until May 1758, when he departed for Amsterdam, where he helped reopen the Amsterdam Art Academy, returned to engraving and produced numerous mezzotints. While in the Low Countries he began buying Dutch Old Masters for English collectors and moved to London by ...

Article

Mónica Martí Cotarelo

(María)

(b Puebla, 1789; d Puebla, 1860).

Mexican architect, sculptor, painter, lithographer, and teacher. He was the leading figure in Puebla in the fields of architecture, sculpture, painting, and drawing during the early 19th century. He was director of the Academia de Dibujo in Puebla from its foundation in 1814 and the first recipient of a scholarship from the academy, which allowed him to go to Paris (1824–1827), where he studied architecture, drawing, and lithography. He also visited museums, factories, and prisons, intending to introduce French developments and systems into Puebla. On his return to Mexico he devoted himself to intense public activity, architectural reform, painting, lithography, and teaching, and experiments in industrialized production. Among his most important sculptural works is the completion (1819) of the ciprés (altarpiece with baldacchino) for Puebla Cathedral, which had been left unfinished on the death of Manuel Tolsá. It combines a high altar, a sepulchral monument, and a sanctuary of the Virgin, and it is one of the most spectacular examples of Mexican neoclassicism. From ...

Article

[Eduardo ]

(b Saint-Quentin, Aisne, Dec 30, 1788; d Saint-Quentin, 1875).

French painter and lithographer, active in Mexico. He studied under David and Jean-Baptiste Regnault and established his reputation in Paris as a painter of portraits, genre scenes, and historical subjects. From 1850 to 1855 he lived and worked in Mexico City, exhibiting annually at the Academia de Bellas Artes. Although he produced outstanding portraits, for example of General Mariano Arista (1851; Mexico City, Mus. N. Hist.), his most important works in Mexico were costumbrista genre scenes, of which he produced a considerable number. He presented his figures, which he painted in a Neoclassical style, as representative of different social types in suitable settings, helping to establish the terms for such subject matter evolved by Agustín Arrieta and other 19th-century Mexican artists.

Obregón, G. Tipos y paisajes mexicanos del siglo XIX. Mexico City, 1976: 6–9.Ortíz Macedo, Luis. Edouard Pingret: Un pintor romántico francés que retrató el Mexico del mediar del siglo XIX...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Celaya, Oct 13, 1759; d Celaya, Aug 3, 1833).

Mexican architect, painter, engraver, and sculptor. He studied painting under Miguel Cabrera at the Real Academia de las Nobles Artes de S Carlos in Mexico City but did not graduate. He subsequently took up wood-carving and engraving. He learnt the elements of architecture from the Jesuits, who gave him a copy of the writings of Jacopo Vignola. His architecture exhibits a familiarity with the classic treatises, although he never visited Europe. Tresguerras’s first major work (1780s) was the reconstruction in Neo-classical style of the convent church of S Rosa, Querétaro, originally consecrated in 1752. The dome over the crossing is set on a drum articulated by rusticated columns, which flank a series of round-headed openings. He is also credited with remodelling the interior of the convent church of S Clara, Querétaro, and with constructing the Neptune Fountain (1802–7) in the plaza in front of it. The god stands under a triumphal arch, while water pours through the mouth of a fish at his feet. Tresguerras also completed (...

Article

[Jean Frédéric Waldeck, Comte de ]

(b Prague, March 17, 1766; d Paris, April 30, 1875).

French painter and printmaker of German–Bohemian origin, active in Mexico. After studying in Paris under Jacques-Louis David, Pierre-Paul Prud’hon and Joseph-Marie Vien he travelled to Chile and then to Mexico, where he was employed by an English mining company in Tlalpujahua to draw machinery to be used in extracting minerals. He became more interested, however, in drawing archaeological ruins. While in Mexico he declined the offer of two posts: that of directing the first lithographic press in 1826, shortly before its installation by the government, and the presidency of the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City. He did, however, publish Colección de antigüedades que existen en el Museo Nacional.

Waldeck continued to publish his illustrations after returning to Europe, where he settled in Paris. In 1866 he was involved in a polemic in the newspapers with Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc over the merits of using photography as archaeological evidence.

Colección de antiqüedades que existen en el Museo Nacional...