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Article

Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...

Article

(b Emden, East Frisia [now Germany], Dec 28, 1630; d Amsterdam, 6–7 Nov, bur Nov 12, 1708).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, calligrapher and printmaker of German origin. He was the son of Gerhard Backhusz. (Backhusen) of Emden, and he trained as a clerk in his native town. Shortly before 1650 he joined the Bartolotti trading house in Amsterdam, where his fine handwriting attracted attention. He practised calligraphy throughout his life (examples in Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.; London, BM). During his early years in Amsterdam he also displayed his skilled use of the pen in drawings, mainly marine scenes, done in black ink on prepared canvas, panel or parchment. He probably derived this technique and subject-matter from Willem van de Velde (ii) the elder’s pen drawings of the 1650s. Bakhuizen continued to produce pen drawings until the 1660s, some depicting recognizable ships and existing views, such as his Ships Leaving Amsterdam Harbour (Amsterdam, Kon. Coll. Zeemanschoop), others depicting unidentified locations, as in the View of a Dutch Waterway (Amsterdam, Ned. Hist. Scheepvaartsmus.)...

Article

Laura Suffield

(b Sion Hill, Worcs, Jan 28, 1706; d Birmingham, Jan 8, 1775).

English printer and publisher . He developed skills in calligraphy and monumental inscription–cutting apparently without an apprenticeship. Aged 19 he went to Birmingham to teach writing and bookkeeping and also to cut tombstones. Around 1740 he entered into business as a manufacturer of japanned goods, at which he proved highly successful. The proceeds enabled him to purchase a large house outside Birmingham and to start experimenting with type-founding c. 1750. Baskerville entered into partnership with the London bookseller Robert Dodsley (1733–64), and he published an edition of the works of Virgil as his first book in 1757; it met with praise but also with the criticism that was to follow him throughout much of his career: the print was too dazzling, the strokes too narrow and the paper too glossy. Baskerville’s types achieved their effect by his modification of the stress nearer the vertical; the transition between thick and thin strokes was more pronounced than in previous types, and the general effect was of greater precision. He may not have set up his own paper mill, as has been suggested, but he certainly exploited the properties of the newly developed wove paper and pressed it to achieve a crisp finish (...

Article

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

[ Mori ]

( fl Edo [now Tokyo], 1760–94; d c. 1794).

Japanese print designer and book illustrator . He may have been a pupil of the ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artist Ishikawa Yukimoto. He is principally known for prints of the following types: hosōban (‘narrow format’, c. 320×150 mm); yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’). In its eclecticism, his style resembles that of his contemporaries, Katsukawa Shunshō ( see Katsukawa family, §1 ) and Suzuki Harunobu , who incorporated a lyricism with a naturalistic depiction of the subject. In 1770 Bunchō collaborated with Harunobu and Shunshō to produce Ehon butai ōgi (‘Picture book of stage fans’; untraced), which featured a new type of yakushae, yakusha nigaoe (‘pictures of likenesses of actors’) and challenged the traditional dominance of theatre illustration by the Torii family school. In Ehon butai ōgi, Bunchō depicted onnagata (kabuki actors playing female roles), while Shunshō illustrated kata keyaki (kabuki villains). Bunchō abandoned ...

Article

Hélène Guicharnaud

(b Paris, Feb 25, 1734; d Paris, March 1, 1796).

French painter, engraver and illustrator. He was the son of the painter Claude-François Caresme (b 1709) and studied with his cousin Charles-Antoine Coypel. In 1753 he was a pupil at the Académie Royale, where in 1761 he won second place in the Prix de Rome competition with Judith and Holofernes (untraced). Following his acceptance by the Académie in 1766, he was able to exhibit regularly at the Salon until his expulsion in 1778. In 1768 he received a commission for a Presentation of the Virgin, one of a group of three paintings destined for Bayonne Cathedral, where it still remains. The following year Caresme showed an oil sketch for the picture at the Salon. Shortly after this he was one of a number of painters selected to work at the Petit Trianon, Versailles, where he was commissioned to produce two overdoors for the antechamber: Myrrha Changed into Myrrh...

Article

David Alexander

(b ?London, 1710; d London, ?May 1758).

English engraver and draughtsman of French Huguenot descent. His early work includes a Watteauesque View of Richmond Palace (1736; Le Blanc 18) and a drawing manual, A New Book of Landskips (1737), both published by J. Rocque (d 1762). He was soon recognized as one of the best of the French landscape engravers in London, with great skill in preliminary etching, and was employed by Arthur Pond on his ambitious set of 44 Italian Landscapes (1741–3). Others who used Chatelain included the topographical artist William Bellers (fl 1761–73), for whose plates of The London Hospital (1753) and Six Views in the North of England (1754; see Upcott, pp. 126–7) Chatelain provided the etching. He does not appear to have published prints himself. As well as working as a printmaker, he was in demand as a teacher and draughtsman. He made many fine landscape drawings, several of which are in the British Museum; they include ...

Article

Christian Michel

(b Paris, March 19, 1730; d Paris, March 7, 1809).

French engraver, illustrator and writer. He came from a poor family and trained with Guillaume Dheulland (c. 1700–c. 1770) by drawing cartouches for maps. He also had lessons from Pierre-Edmé Babel, a goldsmith and designer of ornament. Having designed mainly cartouches, coats of arms and various types of ornament in the 1750s, he gained recognition as a designer of culs-de-lampe and fleurons, which were considered indispensable for all lavishly produced books. In particular, he produced 57 illustrations for La Fontaine’s Contes in the Fermiers Généraux edition (Paris, 1762) and 38 fleurons and culs-de-lampe for Ovid’s Metamorphoses in Lemire’s and Bassan’s edition (Paris, 1767–71). His long-standing acquaintance Charles-Nicolas Cochin II entrusted him with engraving two plates for the Conquêtes de l’Empereur de la Chine (1767–73; Roux, nos 227–8), an important series of large-scale prints on which the best French engravers were being employed. Large plates are, however, rare in Choffard’s oeuvre; he devoted himself mainly to book decoration, such as fleurons for the Abbé de Saint-Non’s ...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton

(b Holborn, London, April 12, 1770; d Kensington, London, May 10, 1854).

English engraver and painter. He worked as an apprentice fishmonger, a lawyer’s clerk, a house painter and a bookseller, before he began painting miniatures and watercolour copies of popular engravings. He also had a talent for mezzotint engraving, and this career came to a well-publicized climax in 1819 with the appearance of the large mezzotint after George Henry Harlow’s The Court for the Trial of Queen Katharine (exh. RA 1817; Sudeley Castle, Glos), owned by Thomas Welsh. Because of its large size and the serious nature of the subject, Harlow had intended this work to be seen as a history painting, but some observers felt that it was merely theatrical. Nevertheless, Harlow’s attempt to create a history painting out of a theatrical scene haunted Clint during his subsequent artistic career and inspired his most important painting The Last Scene in ‘A New Way to Pay Old Debts’ (exh. RA 1820...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1706; d 1753).

English engraver, designer of trade cards and furniture designer. In 1746 he published A New Book of Ornaments, and subsequently collaborated with Matthias Lock on a second edition (1752). The New Book contains designs for side-tables, torchères, clocks, frames, pier-glasses and fireplaces, very much in the Rococo idiom but also including such chinoiserie motifs as ho-ho birds and oriental figures. Copland also provided plates for the ...

Article

David Alexander

(b Kingston upon Hull, 1770; d London, 12 or March 14, 1812).

English publisher and engraver. He studied in London under Francesco Bartolozzi and engraved a number of book illustrations but was best known as a publisher, issuing the designs by William Blake for Robert Blair’s poem The Grave (London, 1743). In 1805 Cromek commissioned Blake to draw and engrave the designs, but Blake felt betrayed when Cromek engaged Luigi Schiavonetti instead because he saw that Blake’s style of engraving would not please the public (for further discussion see Blake, William). Blake was further annoyed when Cromek commissioned Thomas Stothard to paint the Canterbury Pilgrims (1806; London, Tate; for illustration see Stothard family, §1), an idea that Blake thought had been stolen from him; in 1809 Blake published a very successful singly issued print of it. Bentley has shown that although Cromek had considerable understanding and sympathy for Blake his treatment of him helped to increase the artist’s isolation....

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Philadelphia, PA, June 23, 1822; d Claymont, DE, March 27, 1888).

American illustrator and printmaker. After being exposed early to the Neo-classical style of John Flaxman, Darley began his career as an illustrator in Philadelphia in 1842. Following a sketching trip west of the Mississippi during the summer of that year, he produced outline drawings that were adapted into lithographs appearing in Scenes in Indian Life (1843). His early book illustrations were published in periodicals such as Democratic Review and Godey’s Magazine. Working in line drawing, lithography and wood- and steel-engraving, his first major success was his series of illustrations for John Frost’s Pictorial History of the United States (1844).

After moving to New York in 1848, Darley dominated the field of American illustration with his illustrations of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper’s tales and novels. He produced about 500 illustrations for Cooper’s novels and a similar number for Benson J. Lossing’s Our Country (1875–7...

Article

Matthias Frehner

(b Saal, nr Stralsund, Sweden [now Germany], Jan 15, 1746; d Berne, April 2, 1807).

Swiss watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver and illustrator. He received his first drawing lessons in Stralsund from Philipp Hackert in 1762. In 1765 he moved to Paris and became a pupil of Joseph-Marie Vien and Noël Hallé. In Paris Dunker met a number of artists in the circle around the engraver Jean Georges Wille, including Pierre-François Basan, Jacques Gabriel Huquier, Adrian Zingg and Sigmund Freudenberger. At this period he worked as a draughtsman and watercolourist, principally of landscapes. He worked with the engravers and publishers Huquier and Basan, collaborating with other artists on an album of engravings from the collection of Etienne-François, Duc de Choiseul, Recueil d’estampes gravées d’après les tableaux du cabinet de Monseigneur le duc de Choiseul (Paris, 1771). In 1772 Dunker was working in Basle and in 1773 in Berne. He produced book illustrations for the Heptaméron français (Berne, 1778) as well as vignettes, genre scenes and landscapes, such as ...

Article

Paul Niell

(b Torreblanca, 1748; d Mexico City, 1807). Spanish engraver, active also in Mexico. Fabregat was born in Torreblanca in the province of Castellón in 1748. He began his studies at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos in Valencia. He later obtained a prize in engraving from the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid and in 1774 was named ‘Académico Supernumerario’ by this institution and by the Academia de S Carlos in 1781. He engraved for some important printing presses in Spain, including those of Antonio Sancha, Joaquín Ibarra, the Imprenta Real in Madrid, and that of Benito Monfort in Valencia. By royal order, on 21 November 1787, the Crown appointed him director of metal engraving at the Real Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City, founded in 1783, after Fernando Selma declined the position. Fabregat embarked for the Americas in 1788. He is well known for the engraving that Manuel Toussaint titles the ...

Article

Olivier Michel

(b Carcassonne, Oct 3, 1738; d Carcassonne, Oct 12, 1803).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was employed as a book-keeper in Toulouse by Nicolas-Joseph Marcassus, Baron de Puymaurin, who (on the strength of marginal drawings in the ledgers) sent him to study with Pierre Rivalz and then to Paris to the studio of the history painter Jean-Baptiste Deshays. He failed to win the Prix de Rome in 1763 and 1764, but Puymaurin’s generosity enabled him to go to Rome. There he completed his training within the circle of such independent French artists as Laurent Pécheux, who was influenced by the Neo-classicism of Anton Raphael Mengs, and of Italian painters such as Marco Benefial, Domenico Corvi and, later, Giuseppe Cades. In 1770 he travelled to Naples and the following year he was elected to the Accademia di S Luca, Rome, as a battle painter. The most important work of these years is in the gallery of the Palazzo Rondanini, Rome, where in ...

Article

Kimerly Rorschach

[Bourguignon, Hubert-François]

(b Paris, March 26, 1699; d Paris, April 20, 1773).

French illustrator, engraver, painter and draughtsman.

He was born Hubert-François Bourguignon, son of a Parisian tailor. As a young man he took the name Gravelot, the surname of his godfather. Together with his elder brother, who later became the well-known geographer Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville, Gravelot attended the Collège des Quatre Nations, Paris, but neglected his studies in favour of drawing. Under the patronage of Louis d’Aubusson, Duc de la Feuillade (1673–1725), Gravelot undertook a trip to Rome to study art, but when he reached Lyon his money ran out, and he was forced to return to Paris. Several years later Gravelot’s father sent him to Santo Domingo (now the Dominican Republic) with the Chevalier de la Rochalard, Governor-General of the island. There Gravelot apparently tried to establish himself in the business of overseas trade, but an early loss of an expensive shipment of merchandise caused him to abandon the project. By ...

Article

Tadashi Kobayashi

[Suzuki Hozumi; Shikojin, Chōeiken]

(b ?Edo [now Tokyo], ?1725; d Edo, 1770).

Japanese printmaker, book illustrator and painter. A central figure in the development of ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) woodblock printmaking during the mid-Edo (1600–1868) period (see Japan §X 3., (iii)), Harunobu’s most important contribution was the introduction of the first full-colour printing technique to Japan. Stylistically, the new image of feminine beauty that Harunobu created in his bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) single-sheet prints influenced a generation of ukiyoe artists. Like many Edo period ukiyoe masters, Harunobu left few clues to his identity. He was probably born into the chōnin (merchant and artisan) class. An entry referring to Harunobu’s death in the Nishikawaka kakochō (‘Death registry of the Nishikawa family’) indicates that he had a close association with the family of the Kyoto ukiyoe artist Nishikawa Sukenobu. His treatment of trees, shrubs and rocks in his bird-and-flower (kachō) painting on folding screens (...

Article

Masato Naitō

[Iwakubo Kinemon; Kikō; Kyōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1780; d Edo, 1850).

Japanese printmaker and book illustrator. He initially studied painting with Kanō Yōsen (1735–1808), the head of the Kobikichō branch of the Kanō school and okaeshi (official painter) to the Tokugawa shogunate. Together with Teisai Hokuba (1771–1844), Hokkei was one of Katsushika Hokusais best students (see Japan §X 3., (iii), (d)). He made his artistic debut in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) circles c. 1800, producing illustrations for sharebon (comic novels, usually licentious), hanashibon (story books) and kyōkabon (books of ‘crazy verse’). His main period of activity, however, was in the 1820s and 30s. He continued to illustrate kyōka books, but his most outstanding works are kyōka surimono (‘printed objects’; deluxe prints). His representative piece from this period is his illustrated edition of Rokujuen’s [Ishikawa Masamochi] (1753–1830) kokkeibon (humorous tales of urban life), Hokuri jūniji (‘The twelve hours of the northern village’, a euphemism for the Yoshiwara pleasure quarter). Hokkei produced few ...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Valencia, 1757; d Madrid, after 1807).

Spanish illustrator, printmaker and painter. He was nominated Miembro de Mérito of the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, in 1781. He made reproductive engravings of paintings and illustrated such books as Juan Antonio Pellicer’s (1738–1806) annotated edition of Don Quixote (1797), the Fábulas morales (1781–4) by Félix María de Samaniego (1745–1801) and the 1803 edition of the short stories Novelas ejemplares by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547–1616). In his depiction (1790) of the fire in the Plaza Mayor in Madrid and in his interiors of prisons and barracks he pioneered the use of aquatint. He produced the series Caprichos y bombachadas and illustrated the title-page of Ideas y caprichos pintorescos (Madrid, 1807). He had two sons: Laureano (1802–58), an engraver, and Vicente (1796–1857), a history painter.

M. Ossorio y Bernard: Galería biográfica de artistas españoles del siglo XIX...

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

(b Nuremberg, 1720; d Amsterdam, bur May 23, 1772).

Dutch etcher of German birth. Although there are a few portrait etchings known by Körnlein (one dated 1741) and various book illustrations have been attributed to him (e.g. Oeuvres diverses de Pope, Amsterdam and Paris, 1767), his primary importance lies in his role as first assistant to the art collector and print publisher Cornelis Ploos van Amstel, who hired Körnlein to work on a series of colour prints after drawings that he intended to reproduce according to a facsimile method he had himself developed. In 1765 the two men signed a contract in which Körnlein promised strict secrecy about the procedure they were to follow, with a high penalty if the contract were broken. Under the guidance of Ploos van Amstel 46 facsimile prints were produced for the Prentwerk between 1765 and 1787. In the extensive edition of Ploos’s prints by Christian Josi, the Collection d’imitations de dessins...