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Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...

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Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...

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Hannelore Hägele

(b Geisslingen, Feb 7, 1742; d Durlach, 1811).

German medallist and engraver. In 1768 he began his career in Augsburg, where he exhibited medals of the municipal curators Langenmantel and Amman and of Paul von Stetten. He later went to Karlsruhe, where he became court medallist and die-engraver; he also worked in Durlach. Stylistically, his medals, often initialled j.m.b., closely resemble those of Franz Andreas Schega and Johann Karl Hedlinger. Portrait medals of Charles V, Duke of Württemberg and Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden were Bückle’s best works. He also executed the commemorative medal of Count Demetrius Galitzin (1793) and a silver medal (1773; Domanig, no. 771) depicting a hunting scene, awarded as a prize by the School of Forestry and Hunting Science. His pupil J. H. Boltschhauser became a medal engraver to the Mannheim court.

H. Bolzenthal: Skizzen zur Kunstgeschichte der modernen Medaillen-Arbeit (1429–1840) (Berlin, 1840) K. Domanig: Die deutsche Medaille in kunst- und kulturhistorischer Hinsicht...

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Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Sept 16, 1781; d Guatemala City, Nov 21, 1845).

Guatemalan painter, printmaker, and medallist. He entered the mint in 1795 as an apprentice engraver but on the recommendation of its director, Pedro Garci-Aguirre, also became Master Corrector at the Escuela de Dibujo de la Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País, Guatemala City, in 1796, holding the post until 1804. He continued working at the mint until 1809 and demonstrated outstanding skill both as a medallist and engraver of coins and as an engraver and etcher. He returned to the mint in 1823 as second engraver, remaining in the post until his death.

Despite the quality of his work as a printmaker and medallist, Cabrera gained artistic recognition especially as a miniature painter, working mostly in watercolour on ivory in a meticulous technique. He produced some miniatures on religious themes and others of birds, but the majority, measuring no more than 50 mm in height or width, were portraits of members of the Guatemalan aristocracy and bourgeoisie. It is not known exactly how many he produced, but from the middle of the 1830s he began to number them, starting from 500; the highest known number of the approximately 200 authenticated miniatures is 745. Although he suffered some illness, he was most productive during the last five years of his life. An evolution can be discerned from his earliest works, dating from ...

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Joshua Drapkin

(b Azay-le-Ferron, Indre, June 3, 1756; d Versailles, Nov 1, 1827).

French draughtsman, engraver, sculptor and archaeologist. He received instruction in drawing from Joseph-Marie Vien, Jean-Jacques Lagrenée and Jean-Baptiste Le Prince. In 1778 he departed for Italy, where he developed his landscape draughtsmanship and his passion for antiquity. He travelled incessantly, recording everything he saw and venturing out from Rome to Venice, Naples and Sicily. An example of the numerous drawings he produced is the Ruins of the Baths of Titus Seen from the Colosseum (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). In 1782 a group of amateurs, under the patronage of Emperor Joseph II, commissioned from him a series of views of the Istrian and Dalmatian coast; these were eventually published in J. Lavallée’s Voyage pittoresque et historique de l’Istrie et de la Dalmatie. After a brief spell in France, Cassas followed Marie-Gabriel, Comte de Choiseul-Gouffier, to his new ambassadorial post in Constantinople in 1784. He subsequently visited Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Cyprus and Asia Minor, recording his impressions of Alexandria, Cairo, Smyrna, the Temple of Diana (Artemis) at Ephesos and the Palmyra and Baalbek ruins. Many of the 250 drawings dating from this trip were of hitherto unrecorded sights. With Choiseul’s assistance Cassas published these works in the ...

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Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Cuillé, Mayenne, 1680; d Paris, May 11, 1723).

French sculptor, designer and engraver. A pupil of François Girardon, he went to Potsdam in 1701, where he executed decorative sculpture for the Portal of Fortuna (destr. 1945) to the designs of Jean de Bodt. On his return to France he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1707 with a Death of Adonis (plaster; untraced), changing the subject for his morceau de réception of 1713 to the Death of Meleager, an affecting recumbent statuette (marble; Paris, Louvre). Chiefly active as a decorative sculptor specializing in trophies, he also contributed to the decoration of the chapel at the château of Versailles (1708–10; various works in situ), the choir of Notre-Dame, Paris (1711–14; destr.), the Tuileries Palace (1713; destr.), the Luxembourg Palace (1717; destr.), the Louvre (1717–22; destr.), the Château de la Muette, Paris (1720; destr.) and the church of St Roch, Paris (...

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Philip Attwood and D. Brême

French family of artists. Jean-Charles Chéron (fl 1630s), a jeweller and engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, was the father of (1) Charles-Jean-François Chéron. The brother of Jean-Charles, the painter of miniatures and engraver Henri Chéron (b Meaux; d ?Meaux or Lyon, ?1677) trained his daughter (2) Elisabeth-Sophie Chéron. Another daughter, Marie-Anne Chéron (b Paris, 22 July 1649; d before 1718), was also active as a painter of miniatures. As Protestants, several members of the family were threatened with persecution; while Elisabeth-Sophie converted to Catholicism, her brother (3) Louis Chéron fled to England rather than work in the unsympathetic atmosphere that followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1685 (see Huguenots).

Philip Attwood

(b Lunéville, May 29, 1635; d Paris, March 18, 1698).

Medallist. He trained under his father before travelling to Rome in 1655. There he studied medal-engraving under ...

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Christine Clark

(b London, 1767; d Hobart, Tasmania, July 11, 1851).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in Australia. In London he exhibited six portraits at the Royal Academy (1817–23) and three genre paintings at the British Institution and engraved two colour plates for George Morland, before moving to Hobart, Tasmania, in 1832. At the Hobart Mechanics’ Institute in 1833 he delivered the first lecture in Australia on the subject of painting. In 1849 he contributed the paper ‘The School of Athens as it Assimilates with the Mechanics Institution’ to a series of seven lectures (later published) delivered at the Institute. Duterrau painted landscapes and portraits but is best known for his works depicting the Aborigines of Tasmania and their traditional way of life. He was very interested in the events that led to the exclusion of the Aborigines from Tasmania, and in a series of works begun in 1834 but not executed until the early 1840s he showed George Augustus Robinson under commission from the Governor of Tasmania to restore peace with them. ...

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Basil Hunnisett

[Engelheart.]

English family of artists, of German origin. Francis Engelheart (b Silesia, 1713; d Kew, 1773) was a plaster modeller. He came to England c. 1721 and later worked as a decorative plasterer at Kew Palace for Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), and his widow Augusta, the Princess Dowager (1719–72). He seems also to have produced decorative ceilings for Hampton Court Palace. After his death, his family changed the spelling of their name to Engleheart.

Two of Francis’s sons, John Dillman Engleheart (1735–1810) and Paul Engleheart (d 1774), carried on the business, while two others found success in other fields. Thomas Engleheart (b ?London, 1745; d ?London, 1786) was a sculptor and wax modeller, and George Engleheart (b Kew, ?Nov 1753; d Blackheath [now in London], 21 March 1829) was a painter. Thomas studied from 1769 at the Royal Academy schools, London, where he won a gold medal in ...

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Kelly Donahue-Wallace

[Gil y Pérez, Gerónimo Antonio]

(b Zamora, Spain, Nov 3, 1731; d Mexico City, April 18, 1798).

Spanish printmaker, medallist, and type designer, active in Spain and Mexico. He was one of the first students at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid (founded 1752), which awarded him a pension to train as a medallist from 1754 to 1758 under Spain’s Engraver General, Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1760 the academy named Gil Académico de Mérito for his medal-engraving skills.

Upon completing his studies, Gil briefly served as drawing instructor at the S Fernando academy but worked principally making copperplate engravings, letter press type, and medals. He was a frequent contributor to luxury books sponsored by the Real Academia de Historia and the S Fernando academy, including the so-called prince’s edition of Don Quixote (1780) and Antigüedades árabes de España (1787). He spent more than 15 years designing type for the Real Biblioteca, and was credited by his peers with rescuing the Spanish type-making industry. The finest works he carried out in Spain included the engraved illustrations for ...

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Ebba Krull

(b Habelschwerdt, Silesia [now Bystryca Kłodzka, nr Wrocław, Poland], 1721; d Augsburg, 1796).

German draughtsman, engraver and sculptor. After an apprenticeship as a sculptor and a journey to Italy in 1746, he obtained rights of citizenship and the right to practise as a sculptor in Augsburg by marrying Maria Catharina Wörle, widow of the miniature painter. He was president of the guild of sculptors and painters from 1756–7 and was a drawing tutor at the Kunstakademie in Augsburg from 1781 until his death. Although he generally signed himself statuarius, his only known surviving sculptural work (until its destruction in the Second World War) was the front of the organ by the instrument maker Johann Andreas Stein in the Barfüsserkirche in Augsburg (1755–7; destr. 1944). The dearth of commissions for sculptors in Augsburg in the mid-18th century led him to turn to ornamental engraving. The c. 600 surviving engravings by him cover a wide range of ornamental subject-matter. Their success probably depended primarily, despite Habermann’s effervescent imagination, on their practical applicability by any artistic craftsman of the period. The engravings were published, mostly in series of four sheets, by the Augsburg publishers ...

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Franco Panvini Rosati

Italian family of engravers and medallists, of Bavarian origin. They worked mainly in the Roman mint from the mid-17th century to the end of the 18th. The medals they made are notable above all for their documentary value relating to the history of Rome and the city’s monuments. They were technically skilled but somewhat unimaginative portrait artists. Johan Andreas Hamerani (b Adensburg, c. 1600; d Livorno, 1644) arrived in Rome in 1615 during the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Although he worked in the papal mint, he did not execute annual medals. His son Alberto Hamerani (b Rome, 10 Oct 1620; d Rome, 21 June 1677) worked for a short time at the mint of Massa Carrara, then, between 1657 and 1669, in Rome, as assistant first to Gaspare Morone Mola and later to Girolamo Lucenti. From 1667 he engraved papal seals. Noteworthy among his medals was one commemorating the entry into Rome of Queen Christina of Sweden (...

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M. J. C. Otten

(bapt Amsterdam, Sept 10, 1645; bur Haarlem, June 15, 1708).

Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from Constantijn Huygens the elder, secretary to William III; this was Zeestraet (1667; Hollstein, no. 287). In 1668 de Hooghe was in Paris, where he produced some book illustrations, but he returned to Amsterdam, where from 1670 to 1691 he illustrated the annual newsheet Hollandsche Mercurius. He regularly produced such political prints as ...

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Elaine Evans Dee

In 

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Philippe Durey

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Elaine Evans Dee, Robert W. Berger and Françoise de la Moureyre

[Le Paultre; Lepautre]

French family of artists. Adrien Le Pautre was a master joiner. Of his three notable sons (1) Jean Le Pautre was a designer and printmaker, whose published works, sold singly or in sets, were an important conduit for disseminating French architectural taste throughout Europe in the 17th century. Another son, also called Jean Le Pautre (1622–77), was active as a mason, but perhaps the most important member of the family was (2) Antoine Le Pautre, an architect whose Baroque style, manifested in his publication Desseins de plusieurs palais, found favour among members of the aristocracy and with King Louis XIV. Pierre I Le Pautre (c. 1648–1716), (3) Pierre II Le Pautre and Jacques Le Pautre (c. 1653–1684), an engraver, were sons of (1) Jean, while Antoine’s sons included another Jean Le Pautre (1648–1735), a sculptor, and Claude Le Pautre (b 1649...

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Maxime Préaud

French family of artists. Laurent Leclerc (1590-1695) was a goldsmith from Metz. The most prominent members of the Leclerc family were his son (1) Sébastien Leclerc (i) and Sébastien’s son (2) Sébastien Leclerc (ii). Another son of Sébastien Leclerc (i), Louis-Auguste Leclerc (b Paris, 30 Nov 1699; d Copenhagen, 8 March 1771), was a sculptor and pupil of Antoine Coyzevox; from 1735 he worked in Denmark, becoming professor at the Kongelige Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in Copenhagen. His son and pupil Jacques-Sébastien Leclerc (b Paris, c. 1734; d Paris, 17 May 1785) became a painter, producing small-scale amorous scenes; from 1778 he taught at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris.

(b Metz, bapt Sept 26, 1637; d Paris, Oct 25, 1714).

Printmaker, draughtsman and military engineer. He probably learnt the rudiments of drawing and engraving from his ...