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Article

Jeanne-Marie Horat-Weber

(b Winterthur, Nov 14, 1723; d Berne, Oct 17, 1786).

Swiss painter, draughtsman and engraver. In 1741 he moved to Berne, where he took drawing lessons with Johann Grimm (1675–1747), whose school of drawing he took over in 1747. He visited the Bernese Oberland with Emanuel Handmann, Christian Georg Schütz (1718–91) and Friedrich Wilhelm Hirt (1721–72) in 1759 and in the same year travelled to Paris with Adrian Zingg (1734–86). This was his only trip abroad, but it determined him to work exclusively as a landscape painter. After nine months he returned to Berne, where his landscape views became popular, particularly with foreign travellers, enamoured of ‘Nature’ and keen to retain souvenirs of their travels. He was one of the first artists to portray the beauties of the Swiss countryside; his favourite subjects were the Aare Valley and views of Swiss lakes (e.g. View of Erlach on the Lake of Biel; Berne, Kstmus.). He invented a technique known as the ...

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Mechthild Muller

(von)

(b Nuremberg, bapt March 25, 1650; d Munich, Jan 1, 1703).

German engraver and draughtsman. He mainly produced portraits, in the form of engravings, drawings and grisaille miniatures executed with a brush. From 1671 he was copper-engraver to Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, who supported him when he undertook further training in Liège under Michel Natalis (1610–68) and in Paris under Nicolas de Poilly. From the latter Amling learnt how to use and arrange line to produce a very wide range of effects; he also picked up the stiff, two-dimensional look of de Poilly’s figures. He must surely have come into contact with Robert Nanteuil in Paris; he shared with him a delight in detail that appears photographic and a veristic style of reproduction.

Amling generally shows his sitters in three-quarter view, following a formulaic composition. Sometimes their features are exaggerated, as for example in the portraits on parchment of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, and his wife ...

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Olivier Michel

(b Rome, July 9, 1697; d Rome, 1773).

Italian painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of Pietro Anesi, a silk weaver from Venice. Paolo studied figure painting with Giuseppe Chiari and, in 1715, landscape painting with Bernardino Fergioni (1674–?1738), who was also teaching Andrea Locatelli at that time. Sebastiano Conca was another of Anesi’s teachers. In 1723 Anesi married the daughter of the architect Giuseppe Sardi. His earliest known work is a drawing (1719; Florence, Uffizi), but he made his reputation with the only known example of his engraved work: Varie vedute inventate ed intagliate, dedicated to Cardinal Giuseppe Renato Imperiali and published in Rome in 1725.

Anesi visited Florence at least twice and made drawings of the local countryside. After his first journey at the beginning of 1729, four of his drawings (Florence, Uffizi), belonging to Francesco Maria Niccolò Gabburri, were exhibited at SS Annunziata, Florence. During another visit, in 1737, after Anesi had been there for six months, several admirers of his art, including the Marchese Carlo Rinuccini, submitted eleven of his works to the Accademia, of which he duly became a member. He also had a few lines devoted to him by Gabburri in the ...

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Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Huesca, c. 1650; d Huesca, 1711).

Spanish engraver, painter, architect, mathematician and astronomer . He founded the chair of mathematics at the University of Huesca, designed the façade of the university and from 1690 was responsible for overseeing the whole of its construction. He executed an etching of this façade, as well as others showing allegories referring to the city and the university. Artiga wrote scientific and literary works, including an unpublished treatise entitled Fortificación elemental, which he illustrated. He also illustrated Vicencio Juan de Lastanosa’s Tratado de la moneda jaquesa (Saragossa, 1681) and engraved some further architectural views as well as images of antique Roman fragments and archaeological remains. In addition, he produced religious engravings, and a number of paintings have been attributed to him by Ceán Bermúdez.

Bénézit; Ceán Bermúdez A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España (Madrid, 1979), p. 192 E. Páez Ríos: Repertorio (Madrid, 1981–3), i, pp. 70–71 C. Guitart Aparicio: ‘Geografía de la arquitectura barroca en Aragón’, ...

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(b Emden, East Frisia [now Germany], Dec 28, 1630; d Amsterdam, 6–7 Nov, bur Nov 12, 1708).

Dutch painter, draughtsman, calligrapher and printmaker of German origin. He was the son of Gerhard Backhusz. (Backhusen) of Emden, and he trained as a clerk in his native town. Shortly before 1650 he joined the Bartolotti trading house in Amsterdam, where his fine handwriting attracted attention. He practised calligraphy throughout his life (examples in Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; Dresden, Kupferstichkab.; London, BM). During his early years in Amsterdam he also displayed his skilled use of the pen in drawings, mainly marine scenes, done in black ink on prepared canvas, panel or parchment. He probably derived this technique and subject-matter from Willem van de Velde (ii) the elder’s pen drawings of the 1650s. Bakhuizen continued to produce pen drawings until the 1660s, some depicting recognizable ships and existing views, such as his Ships Leaving Amsterdam Harbour (Amsterdam, Kon. Coll. Zeemanschoop), others depicting unidentified locations, as in the View of a Dutch Waterway (Amsterdam, Ned. Hist. Scheepvaartsmus.)...

Article

William L. Pressly

(b Cork, Oct 11, 1741; d London, Feb 22, 1806).

Irish painter, draughtsman, printmaker and writer.

He was the son of a publican and coastal trader and studied with the landscape painter John Butts (c. 1728–65) in Cork. Early in his career he determined to become a history painter: in 1763 he went to Dublin, where he exhibited the Baptism of the King of Cashel by St Patrick (priv. col., on loan to Dublin, N.G.) at the Dublin Society of Arts, by whom he was awarded a special premium for history painting. He studied under the portrait and history painter Jacob Ennis (1728–70) at the Dublin Society’s drawing school. He attracted the attention of Edmund Burke, who in 1764 found work for him in London preparing material for volumes of the Antiquities of Athens with James ‘Athenian’ Stuart. From 1765 to 1771 Barry travelled in Europe, financially supported by Burke. He was mostly in Rome, where he moved in the circle of the Scottish painters John and Alexander Runciman and the sculptor Joseph Nollekens; he seems also to have known the Swedish Neo-classical sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel. In ...

Article

David Alexander

English family of engravers. Isaac Basire (1704–68) worked as an engraver in London. His son (John) James Basire (i) (b ?London, 6 Oct 1730; d London, 6 Sept 1802) became known as an engraver of architecture and was employed on the first volume of James Stuart’s and Nicholas Revett’s The Antiquities of Athens (1762). In 1763 he travelled in Italy; around that time he succeeded George Vertue as Engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, and he became Engraver to the Royal Society in 1770. He contributed fine prints to Vetusta monumenta, produced for the Antiquaries, and other publications; he also engraved many individually issued prints, notably one after Benjamin West’s Pylades and Orestes (1766), one of the first prints of a contemporary painting published by John Boydell. This was shown in London in 1770 at the Free Society of Artists exhibition; between ...

Article

Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...

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Alden R. Gordon

(b Paris, Feb 23, 1726; d Paris, Feb 27, 1786).

French engraver and writer. He won the Prix de Rome in architecture in 1747 and, under the sponsorship of the Abbé Ulrich-Frédéric de Lowendal (1694–1754), departed from Paris late in 1748 to take his place as a scholar at the Académie de France in Rome, where he became actively involved with the antiquarian movement. In 1750 he contributed views of Rome to Ridolfino Venuti’s guidebook Roma and also collaborated with Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Jean-Laurent Legeay and Philotée-François Duflos (?1710–46) on producing etchings for Piranesi’s Varie vedute di Roma antica e moderna. Bellicard was chosen as travelling companion to Abel-François Poisson de Vandières, Marquis de Marigny, in 1750–51, replacing Jacques-Germain Soufflot who had become ill and returned to Lyon to convalesce. Collaborating with Charles-Nicolas Cochin II, another of Marigny’s companions, Bellicard wrote the Observations sur les antiquités de la ville d’Herculanum, which were the first illustrated accounts of the archaeological sites near Naples and were a great success, being published in three English-language editions in London and in three French editions in Paris. As Directeur-Général des Bâtiments, ...

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(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

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(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...

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Marie-Félicie Pérez

(b Lyon, Nov 30, 1736; d Lyon, March 1, 1810).

French printmaker, draughtsman and painter. Apart from studying briefly at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin in Lyon, he was self-taught. His first concentrated phase as a printmaker was 1758–64, during which he published three suites of etchings. Boissieu spent 1765–6 in Italy in the company of Louis-Alexandre, Duc de la Rochefoucauld (1743–93), returning to Lyon via the Auvergne with a cache of his own landscape drawings. He remained in Lyon, where he published further prints at intervals, making occasional trips to Paris and Geneva. Boissieu’s prints earned him the reputation of being the last representative of the older etching tradition—he particularly admired Rembrandt van Rijn—at a time when engraving was being harnessed for commercial prints, and lithography was coming into use. For his landscape etchings Boissieu drew upon the scenery of the Roman Campagna, the watermills, windmills and rustic figures of the Dutch school (notably Salomon van Ruysdael) and the countryside around Lyon. He also engraved ...

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Alastair Laing

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1703; d Paris, May 30, 1770).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....

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[Adrien-François]

(bapt Brussels, Oct 3, 1644; d Brussels, 1711).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of Nicolas Boudewijns and Françoise Jonquin. On 5 October 1664 he married Louise de Ceul, and on 22 November 1665 he became a master in the Brussels Guild of St Luke, after having been registered as a pupil of Ignatius van der Stock (fl 1660) in the same year. By 1669 he had fled to Paris, where he met fellow Flemings, Pieter Boel, Abraham Genoels, Adam Frans van der Meulen and Jan van Hughtenburgh (1647–1733), and where he was mainly active as an engraver. He engraved van der Meulen’s Battles of Louis XIV and numerous works by Genoels, van Hughtenburgh and by himself. These prints combine bold execution with careful attention to detail. In 1669–70 he was sent to the southern Netherlands with Genoels and van Hughtenburgh to draw three views of the château of Mariemont as tapestry designs for the ...

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Manfred Sellink

[Peeter]

(bapt Brussels, Dec 5, 1658; d Brussels, Jan 28, 1719).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher. He enrolled at the Brussels guild of painters in 1671; his teacher is not known. From c. 1675 he spent several years in Paris, where he frequently collaborated with Adriaen Frans Boudewijns, a fellow countryman, as in the Village Fair (1686; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.), for which he painted the figures. He was then active in Brussels, where he married in 1695. He probably visited Italy.

Almost all Bout’s dated works were made before 1700. He painted views of towns, villages, ports and beaches in the tradition of Jan Breughel I. They are similar to the paintings of Boudewijns and Jacques d’Arthois, for whom he also often painted staffage. He also painted Italianate landscapes in the manner of Nicolaes Berchem, such as the Resting Place (c. 1680; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). His paintings have an easy and lively character, and he used the brush with precision, as in the ...

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(b Speyer, 1709; bur; Mannheim, Dec 21, 1760).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. Trained by Johann Georg Dathan (1703–c. 1748) in Speyer, he was a court painter in Mannheim from 1733 until his death, from 1755 gallery director and from 1757 a privy councillor. Of the religious works that, as a court painter, he was obliged to produce, the only ones that survive are frescoes (spandrel paintings) depicting the Four Quarters of the World (after 1748; Mannheim, former Jesuit church of SS Ignaz und Franz Xavier) and ceiling paintings in Electress Elizabeth Augusta’s library in Schloss Mannheim.

Brinckmann’s landscapes show two opposing trends. On the one hand, there are small, detailed picturesque landscapes in courtly or rural settings with suitable accessories, often with many figures. According to the terms of his contract, he had to produce two such paintings each year; typical examples are the Court Gardens at Mannheim (1745) and Wolfbrunnens near Heidelberg...

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(b Edinburgh, 1749; d Leith, Sept 5, 1787).

Scottish draughtsman and printmaker. He was the son of a goldsmith and watchmaker, and studied at the Trustees’ Academy, Edinburgh, before moving to Rome in 1769 to join his friend Alexander Runciman. He produced small-scale or miniature works, using pencil, pen and wash. For his Scottish employers, William Townley and Sir William Young, he drew antiquities, landscapes and archaeological ruins in Italy and Sicily, such as the Basilica of Constantine and Maxentius (c. 1774–6; Edinburgh, N.G.). Among the more personal works that survive from his 11 years in Italy are a number of strange little genre scenes, such as Two Men in Conversation (c. 1775–80; U. London, Courtauld Inst. Gals), which clearly show the influence of another friend, Henry Fuseli. Brown’s reputation rests principally on his great skill as a portrait draughtsman. He returned to Scotland in 1780, and spent his later years executing fine pencil and pen portraits of various dignitaries, such as ...

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Christina Frehner-Bühler

(b Langnau, Nov 30, 1713; d Zurich, March 31, 1793).

Swiss painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He spent an unproductive period of training with the engraver Melchior Füssli (1677–1736) and from 1729 served a three-year apprenticeship with the painter Johann Simmler (1693–1748). Bullinger travelled in northern Italy and from 1733 to 1735 was a pupil of Giambattista Tiepolo in Venice. He returned to Zurich in 1735, then from 1736 to 1737 travelled on foot through Solothurn, Neuenburg and Berne, painting landscapes and portraits. In 1738 he went to Düsseldorf, then began three years of study in Amsterdam. In 1742 he settled in Zurich, where he painted interiors and began etching. In 1756 he published a collection of landscapes after Johann Franz Ermels (1641–93), the landscape painter Felix Meyer (1653–1713) and his own drawings, and in 1770 a similar collection of 100 Schweizer Prospekten. Bullinger’s work became known in Paris through the engraver and collector Jean-Georges Wille. Bullinger’s landscapes, unlike those of his Swiss contemporaries, were based on German Baroque models; they were studio pieces of fantastical composition, which did not aim to reflect observed reality. The compositions are clearly divided into foreground, middle ground and background and are assembled from props—rocks, trees, clouds, figure and animal groups—like stage sets. In ...

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P. Knolle

(bapt Amsterdam, Nov 19, 1724; d Amsterdam, April 7, 1801).

Dutch draughtsman, painter and printmaker. He was the son of a wig-maker. Up to the age of 19 he worked for a solicitor. Both his employer’s son and the poet and collector Sybrand Feitama encouraged him to take lessons with Cornelis Pronk and at the Amsterdam Drawing Academy. He studied, among other things, Jacob de Wit’s work and, after further training with Cornelis Troost, established himself as an independent artist in 1745, enrolling in Amsterdam’s Guild of St Luke in 1750. Initially he made pastel portraits and painted theatre scenery, from 1755 to 1760 living in Mijdrecht. During the 1770s he began to work on book illustration, the field in which he became famous. He illustrated Martinus Stuart’s Romeinse geschiedenissen (‘Roman histories’; 17 vols, Amsterdam, 1793–1810), J. Kok’s Vaderlandsch woordenboek (‘Dictionary of the national language’; 35 vols, Amsterdam, 1785–96) and the work of numerous other Dutch writers. His drawings were engraved by ...