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Fabian Stein


German family of goldsmiths, furniture-makers and engravers. Lorenz Biller (i) (fl c. 1664–85) achieved prominence with works for Emperor Leopold I, for whom he made a centrepiece with a knight on a horse (1680–84; Moscow, Kremlin, Armoury) that was sent to Moscow as an ambassadorial gift. Lorenz Biller (i)’s sons, Johann Ludwig Biller (i) (1656–1732), Albrecht Biller (1663–1720) and Lorenz Biller (ii) (fl c. 1678–1726), supplied silverware of the highest quality to several German courts, especially that of Prussia, for which Albrecht made large wine-coolers and ‘pilgrim’ bottles (1698; Berlin, Schloss Köpenick). The strongly sculptural style of these pieces suggests familiarity with the work of Andreas Schlüter. Albrecht Biller’s abilities as a sculptor are also evident in his reliefs and in seven splendid silver vases he supplied to the court of Hesse-Kassel (c. 1700; Kassel, Hess. Landesmus.). The silver vases ordered by the court usually followed French fashions, yet the form and lavish decoration of these pieces are quite different. A pair of vases by ...


L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...


Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1706; d 1753).

English engraver, designer of trade cards and furniture designer. In 1746 he published A New Book of Ornaments, and subsequently collaborated with Matthias Lock on a second edition (1752). The New Book contains designs for side-tables, torchères, clocks, frames, pier-glasses and fireplaces, very much in the Rococo idiom but also including such chinoiserie motifs as ho-ho birds and oriental figures. Copland also provided plates for the ...


Basil Hunnisett


English family of artists, of German origin. Francis Engelheart (b Silesia, 1713; d Kew, 1773) was a plaster modeller. He came to England c. 1721 and later worked as a decorative plasterer at Kew Palace for Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), and his widow Augusta, the Princess Dowager (1719–72). He seems also to have produced decorative ceilings for Hampton Court Palace. After his death, his family changed the spelling of their name to Engleheart.

Two of Francis’s sons, John Dillman Engleheart (1735–1810) and Paul Engleheart (d 1774), carried on the business, while two others found success in other fields. Thomas Engleheart (b ?London, 1745; d ?London, 1786) was a sculptor and wax modeller, and George Engleheart (b Kew, ?Nov 1753; d Blackheath [now in London], 21 March 1829) was a painter. Thomas studied from 1769 at the Royal Academy schools, London, where he won a gold medal in ...


Christiaan Schuckman

(b Rotterdam, Dec 16, 1754; d Rotterdam, Aug 17, 1826).

Dutch printmaker, draughtsman, painter and wallpaper designer. Groenewegen spent nearly all his life near Rotterdam on the Westzee Dyke, which leads towards Delfshaven. Like his father he was a ship’s carpenter, until he lost part of his right leg and was forced to take up another trade. He became an artist and began to make faithful representations of topographical subjects and shipping scenes. He found his subjects in Rotterdam as well as around Delfshaven, Schoonderloo, Overschie and other neighbouring villages. Apart from paintings, he made wallpaper decorations, all with shipping as their subject-matter. From 1779 until his death he produced hundreds of drawings in gouache and watercolour or pen and ink, mostly of topographical subjects. For example, his prints comprise figures in traditional costume, a number of river and port views and the illustrations of ship types known as the Collection of 84 Dutch Ships, published in seven series between ...


Bernard Jacqué


(b c. 1701; d c. 1780).

English wood-engraver and wallpaper manufacturer. He trained as a wood-engraver, first in London with Edward Kirkall (1695–1750) and then c. 1726 in Paris under Jean-Michel Papillon. He parted from Papillon on bad terms and went on to Rome, and then Venice, specializing in the chiaroscuro technique. His six Heroic Landscapes (1745 after gouaches by Marco Ricci were printed in 7–10 colours. He returned to London in 1746 and founded a wallpaper manufacturing company in Battersea. There he applied the chiaroscuro technique to produce wallpaper panels printed with oil-based colours, imitating the appearance of the print rooms of the day with their framed engravings and landscapes in roundels surrounded by Baroque frames (e.g. London, V&A). He also engraved imitation stucco arrangements of ornamental foliage in the Italian style, as well as statues and trophies. He published a vigorous defence of his claims for recognition as an inventor of the technique of printing and engraving in ...


Alan Powers

(b Paris, March 19, 1715; d St Petersburg, March 24, 1759).

French painter, furniture designer, architect and engraver. He studied with Jacques Dumont and won the Grand Prix de Peinture in 1739. He remained for eight years in Rome, where his architectural designs for the temporary centrepiece of the annual Chinea festival (1745, 1746 and 1747) are early examples of Neo-classicism, displaying a simple architectonic use of the orders that indicates his association with Giovanni Battista Piranesi in the circle of students of the Académie de France in Rome, who were highly influential in French architecture from the 1760s onwards. On his return to Paris in 1747, Le Lorrain enjoyed the patronage of the Comte de Caylus, for whom he executed engravings of ancient paintings and revived the technique of encaustic. Through de Caylus he obtained a commission from Count Carl Gustav Tessin to design quadratura representations of columns and niches for the dining-room walls of his country house at Åkerö, Sweden, in ...


Bernard Jacqué

French family of wood-engravers and wallpaper makers. Jean Papillon (1661–1723) came from a family of dominotiers or manufacturers of marbled and coloured papers. In 1688 he took over his father’s printing-house where, it is claimed, he invented papiers de tapisserie or paper hangings. It is also claimed that he was the first to design paper with patterns that could be joined together when pasted on the wall.

Jean’s son, Jean-Michel Papillon (1698–1776), also engraved, printed and hung wallpaper (Rixheim, Mus. Pap. Peint). Only a dozen or so plates made by him, executed in the ornamental style of the first half of the 18th century, are known to have survived (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Est.). He also produced a series of seven wash drawings (c. ?1759, unpublished) intended for Denis Diderot’s Encyclopédie, which show precisely how such patterned papers were manufactured and hung on walls or screens. His ...


Roger White

(b Durham, bapt Feb 20, 1718; d London, May 17, 1765).

English architect, engraver and furniture designer. The son of a gardener, he was appointed Clerk of the Works at the Queen’s House, Greenwich, in 1736 and was clerk at a succession of royal buildings, notably at the London palaces of Whitehall, Westminster and St James’s (1746–54). In this capacity he became closely associated with William Kent, whose Horse Guards scheme he was responsible for executing and possibly modifying (1750–59). He engraved and published a number of Kent’s designs (notably in Some Designs of Mr Inigo Jones and Mr William Kent, 1744). Not surprisingly, Kent’s influence is strongly felt in Vardy’s own work, such as the ‘New Stone Building’ adjoining Westminster Hall (begun 1755; destr. 1883) and the unexecuted scheme (1754) for a building for the new British Museum in Old Palace Yard, Westminster.

Vardy’s private commissions included the remodelling (1761–3) of Hackwood Park (destr. in later alterations, ...