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Philip Attwood and D. Brême

French family of artists. Jean-Charles Chéron (fl 1630s), a jeweller and engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, was the father of (1) Charles-Jean-François Chéron. The brother of Jean-Charles, the painter of miniatures and engraver Henri Chéron (b Meaux; d ?Meaux or Lyon, ?1677) trained his daughter (2) Elisabeth-Sophie Chéron. Another daughter, Marie-Anne Chéron (b Paris, 22 July 1649; d before 1718), was also active as a painter of miniatures. As Protestants, several members of the family were threatened with persecution; while Elisabeth-Sophie converted to Catholicism, her brother (3) Louis Chéron fled to England rather than work in the unsympathetic atmosphere that followed the revocation of the Edict of Nantes of 1685 (see Huguenots).

Philip Attwood

(b Lunéville, May 29, 1635; d Paris, March 18, 1698).

Medallist. He trained under his father before travelling to Rome in 1655. There he studied medal-engraving under ...



Anne Pastori Zumbach

(b Geneva, April 6, 1682; d Geneva, March 7, 1766).

Swiss painter and engraver. He was a member of a family of artists and jewellers in Geneva. At an early age he showed a pronounced talent for art, but as there was no school of drawing in Geneva, he moved to Germany. At Kassel, Baron von Mardefeld became his patron, sent him to Berlin and recommended him to important people at court. Gardelle is said to have painted the royal family; however, this was most probably simply a question of copying existing portraits. In 1711, on his return to Kassel, he painted from life a portrait of Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. In 1712 he travelled to Paris, where he spent a year perfecting his art in the studio of Nicolas de Largillierre. It was there that he acquired the fluid and elegant style of the French Rococo. He returned to Switzerland for good in 1713 and became a portrait painter, painting both the great and the humble, not only in Geneva but also in Berne, Neuchâtel and the Vaud. He was a very prolific artist and often executed replicas of his paintings for himself. These paintings, often in a small format (usually 240×180 mm), are particularly remarkable for their brightness of colour and their close attention to likenesses (e.g. ...


D. Brême



Freya Probst

(b Altenburg, Oct 23, 1733; d Berlin, Feb 2, 1805).

German engraver and designer. He is regarded as one of the most important 18th-century German engravers. His father, Johann Christoph Meil, who died young, had been court sculptor in Altenburg. His stepfather, also a sculptor, directed Meil towards a career in science. At the university of Leipzig, however, Meil trained as an engraver and attended lectures on art history, art theory and philosophy. In 1752 he went to Berlin, where he met the brothers Johann Christian Hoppenhaupt and Johann Michael Hoppenhaupt II (see Hoppenhaupt family), who engaged him primarily as an engraver for their designs. Between 1752 and 1755 Meil produced a number of engravings of tables, clock-cases, chandeliers and other items in the Rococo style, based on drawings by the Hoppenhaupt brothers. Meil also designed furniture, jewellery and motifs for porcelain painting and the 12 vases that stand in front of the picture gallery in Schloss Sanssouci, Potsdam. His major field of work, however, was book illustration. He joined the circle of the poet Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and in ...


[Sirleto; Sirletto]

Italian family of engravers, jewellers, gold- and silversmiths. Flavio Sirletti (b Ferrara, 1683; d Rome, 15 Aug 1737) was a gem-engraver and jeweller. He moved from Ferrara to Rome in the early years of the 18th century and from 1719 was a member of the Virtuosi al Pantheon. His admirers included Giovanni Pichler, and contemporary and later critics lauded his work for its fineness of touch, which recalled the technique and style of the Classical engravers. Giulianelli claimed that Sirletti achieved this through his revival of the use of a diamond point. Intaglios included portraits of his contemporaries, the most renowned being that of Carlo Maratti engraved on a carnelian (untraced), as well as reproductions on gems of such well-known antique statues and busts as Caracalla and the Farnese Hercules (untraced; originals both Naples, Mus. N. S. Martino). One of his last works, a reproduction of the Laokoon...