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(b Paris, June 6, 1719; d Paris, May 31, 1794).

French patron, collector, amateur engraver and soldier . He was the only son of the collector Augustin Blondel de Gagny and joined the army at 15, being awarded the Croix de St Louis in 1745. He retired from the army in 1753, having married a great heiress, Catherine Edmée de la Haye des Fosses; they divided their time between hôtels particuliers in the Rue de Vendôme and the Rue Nazareth, Paris, and an elegant château at Bonneuil. Azincourt was an honorary member of the Académie Royale in Paris and the academy of Marseille. In 1776 he helped to arrange the acquisition by the Maison du Roi of the Cabinet de l’Amour from the Hôtel Lambert, Paris. In La Première Idée de la curiosité (1749), he described the principles of collecting and offered advice on display. His eclectic collection ranged from Italian, Northern European and French works to curiosities of natural history. After ...



(b Paris, Dec 11, 1715; d Paris, 1797).

French soldier, amateur printmaker and collector. He was sometimes called ‘Comte’, probably an assumed title. He was raised by his grandfather Jean Baudouin des Pacauds (d 1722), a tobacco merchant and collector of maps and mathematical instruments, whose wealth he inherited. In 1736 Baudouin joined a regiment of the Gardes Françaises as a gentilhomme à drapeau. He was an amateur printmaker of limited technical skill; in 1757 he published L’Exercice de l’infanterie française, a book of 62 prints. He presented it to Louis XV and was rewarded with 20,000 francs. The book was republished in 1759, with the plates re-engraved by Augustin de Saint-Aubin. Baudouin was a considerable collector, particularly of Dutch and Flemish paintings, which served as models for many of his prints. In 1779 he sold 115 paintings from his collection to Catherine the Great, having had copies made of 92 of them. Many of the works he sold, including ...


L. Fornari Schianchi

(b Arcisate di Como, 1727; d Parma, Nov 4, 1792).

Italian stuccoist, printmaker, painter and collector. Before studying anything else he learned stucco decoration from his father Pietro Luigi (d 1754), who worked in Germany from 1743 until his death. Stucco work always remained Bossi’s main activity, alongside that of printmaking, especially etching. His experiments in the latter field followed in the tradition of the great Venetian printmakers. He was encouraged by Charles-François Hutin, who was in Dresden from 1753 to 1757 and whom he followed to Milan and Parma. His first etching, based on a work by Bartolomeo Nazari (1693–1758), was done in Milan in 1758. From 1759 on he was in Parma, where he produced some plates for the Iconologie tirée de divers auteurs (1759) by Jean-Baptiste Boudard, and where he executed the stucco trophy decoration for the attic of S Pietro, the construction of which began in 1761. From this date Bossi also collaborated with the designer ...


Danielle Rice

[Tubières de Grimoard de Pestels de Lévis, Anne-Claude-Philippe de]

(b Paris, Oct 31, 1692; d Paris, Sept 5, 1765).

French amateur engraver, antiquarian, patron and writer. Born into an old aristocratic family, he enjoyed all of the privileges of his class, including a large private income, free time, access to artists and collectors, and mobility. He entered the army and distinguished himself in battle at an early age. In 1714 he spent a year in Italy, where he developed a lifelong passion for the arts, especially for antiquities. After the death of Louis XIV in 1715, Caylus resigned his military post and shortly thereafter undertook a hazardous journey to Turkey. In pursuit of ancient sites rarely seen by European eyes at this time, he negotiated with the local bandit chieftain for safe passage to the ruins of Ephesos and Colophon.

In 1719 Caylus settled in Paris, where he remained with the exception of a brief trip to Holland and England in 1722. He began frequenting the weekly gatherings held by Pierre Crozat, a wealthy financier and collector. Crozat’s circle included many important artists as well as connoisseurs and aestheticians who met to study his extensive collection of Old Master paintings and drawings and to debate theories of art. In this lively company, Caylus developed his eye and learnt etching and engraving from the artist ...


Andrew W. Moore

(b Norwich, Dec 22, 1768; d Norwich, April 22, 1821).

English painter, printmaker, collector and teacher. The son of a journeyman weaver, he was apprenticed to a coach and sign painter, Francis Whisler, from 1783 to 1790. He presumably continued in this trade and during the 1790s consolidated his artistic training. Early local influences upon Crome included William Beechey and John Opie, but the friendship of Thomas Harvey, a patron, collector and amateur artist, was the most significant. Harvey’s collection included works by Dutch 17th-century masters such as Aelbert Cuyp, Jacob van Ruisdael and Meindert Hobbema, and also works by Gainsborough and Richard Wilson. The earliest record of Wilson’s influence is provided by two oils entitled Composition in the Style of Wilson (untraced), dated 1796 and 1798 in Crome’s Memorial Exhibition of 1821. The Dutch influence was also strong throughout Crome’s career. Crome’s early acquaintance with Harvey and his collection almost certainly encouraged him to become a collector, and the Yarmouth banker ...


Laure Pellicer

(b Montpellier, April 1, 1766; d Montpellier, March 16, 1837).

French painter, printmaker and collector. He was taught by the painter Jean Coustou (1719–91) in Montpellier before entering, in 1783, the studio of David, to whose artistic principles he remained faithful all his life. His career as a history painter began brilliantly when, in 1787, he won the Prix de Rome for Nebuchadnezzar Ordering the Execution of Zedekiah’s Children (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). This early success was consolidated by the four years he spent at the Académie de France in Rome and by the enthusiastic reception of his Death of Abel (1790; Montpellier, Mus. Fabre) at the Salon of 1791.

In 1793 his royalist sympathies forced him to move to Florence, where the poet Vittorio Alfieri and his mistress the Countess of Albany, estranged wife of the Young Pretender, introduced him to the artistic and social life of the city. In the years preceding the French invasion of Tuscany in ...


Richard Jeffree

(b Nièvre, 1686; d London, before April 3, 1770).

English painter, printmaker, collector and curator of French birth. A nephew of the French-born portrait painter Louis Goupy (c. 1674–1747), he visited Malta early in his career, producing four panoramic views of the port of Valletta (Melbourne Hall, Derbys), later engraved by Antoine Benoist. In 1711 he was among the first subscribers to Godfrey Kneller’s Academy in London. Goupy’s speciality from then on appears to have been the production of small copies in pastel or gouache of Old Master paintings; they were widely admired and initially fetched high prices. Through his acquaintance with Marco Ricci, Goupy painted sets for productions by the Royal Academy of Music during the 1720s. These included several operas by George Frideric Handel, with whom he developed a close friendship; it ended with the publication of the True Representation and Character of the Charming Brute (1730), the print made after Goupy’s savage caricature (gouache; Cambridge, Fitzwilliam) of the composer as a bewigged hog playing the organ....


Andrea M. Kluxen

(b Hamburg, Feb 14, 1712; d Dresden, Jan 25, 1780).

German diplomat, theorist, collector and etcher. The brother of the poet Friedrich von Hagedorn (1708–54), from 1735 he served in the Saxon diplomatic service. Travelling through Germany and Austria, he met and corresponded with several artists and art theorists, including Johann Joachim Winckelmann, J. G. Sulzer and Salomon Gessner. His collection of paintings and drawings—primarily Dutch and German 17th- and 18th-century work, especially landscapes—became famous, and his advice on art matters was widely appreciated. In 1764 he became director of the Saxon art collections and art schools in Dresden.

Hagedorn’s Lettre à un amateur de la peinture avec des éclairissements historiques … (Dresden, 1755), combining a description of his collection with biographies of 18th-century artists, was, according to its author, a continuation of the Teutsche Academie by Joachim von Sandrart; it remains an important source for art history. The Betrachtungen über die Mahlerey (Leipzig, 1762) and numerous essays that appeared in the ...


Madeleine Barbin

(b Orléans, May 7, 1695; d Paris, June 11, 1772).

French collector, engraver, print-publisher and print-seller. He was probably led to study engraving by his taste for collecting prints and drawings. He made no innovations in the engraving process, but used etching lightly reworked with the burin, a method suited to reproducing the sort of drawings that he usually chose as models, most of them coming from his own collection.

Huquier’s engravings are mostly of work by contemporaries, sometimes in the form of single engravings, but mostly in books of six, twelve, or sometimes more plates. They are rarely dated. He began by reproducing the works of Claude Gillot, including La Vie de Notre Seigneur Jésus-Christ (Bruand, Hébert and Sjöberg, nos 695–754) and Scènes comiques du Théatre italien (c. 1729–32; bhs 755–66). Among other works by Antoine Watteau, he engraved 12 arabesques (bhs 1711–44) for the Recueil Jullienne. He also engraved Edme Bouchardon’s Livre de vases...


(b Paris, Nov 29, 1686; d Paris, March 20, 1766).

French textile manufacturer, collector and amateur engraver. He was the nephew of François de Jullienne, a cloth merchant, and of Jean Glucq, a celebrated dyer for the Gobelins factory in Paris, and in 1721 he merged their successful businesses. As a young man he studied drawing with Jean-François de Troy, and engraving with François Boucher and Girard Audran, and he was friendly with François Lemoyne and with Antoine Watteau, whose Portrait of a Gentleman (Paris, Louvre) has been said to be of Jullienne. Shortly before his death Watteau presented Jullienne with a large number of his drawings; Jullienne eventually owned more than 500 of Watteau’s drawings. In 1726 he published Figures de différents caractères de paysages et d’études, dessinés d’après nature par Antoine Watteau, a volume of engravings by major artists after all the drawings by Watteau then known (Jullienne himself provided 12 plates). In 1736 Jullienne was ennobled and created a Chevalier of the Order of St Michel; in that same year he published four volumes of the ...


Anne Leclair

(b Paris, 1701; d Paris, 1779).

French collector, goldsmith, draughtsman and engraver. He was a member of a Parisian family of goldsmiths. In 1756 he became an alderman of the city of Paris, an appointment that conferred nobility. He was a great connoisseur who numbered among his friends artists, art dealers and art lovers, including Edmé-François Gersaint, Jean-Georges Wille and Pierre-Jean Mariette, with whom he collaborated in publishing a work on Edme Bouchardon’s equestrian statue of Louis XV (Paris, Place Louis XV; destr.). On Mariette’s death, the King urged Lempereur to purchase for him the whole of his famous collection (see Mariette family, §4); the negotiations broke down, but Lempereur did succeed in buying 1300 drawings (Paris, Louvre).

Lempereur himself also gathered together a superb collection of works of art (1218 items, sold 24 May 1773). The greater part of the drawings from Italy and the Netherlands (such as those by Raphael and ...


P. Knolle

(b Utrecht, Sept 25, 1731; d Utrecht, May 26, 1797).

Dutch timber merchant, draughtsman, engraver and collector. He made drawings, engravings and watercolours of townscapes, landscapes and buildings. His elder brother Pieter Jan van Liender (1727–79) was also a draughtsman, and he was first taught by his uncle Jacobus (1696–1759). In Amsterdam, where Paulus went to learn the commercial trade, he studied under Cornelis Pronk. There he became friends with a fellow student, Jan de Beyer, with whom he went on a study trip to Germany. Their work was stylistically very similar, and together they created a series of topographical prints, which were included in Het verheerlykt Nederland of kabinet van hedendaagsche gezigten (‘The glorious Netherlands or cabinet of modern views’; Amsterdam, 1745–7). Van Liender also became known for his contributions to other topographical atlases, such as that of the city of Amersfoort (1760). About 1760 he settled in Haarlem and became a timber merchant, and from ...


(b Châlons-sur-Marne, Jan 17, 1727; d Paris, 1794).

French administrator, writer, collector, amateur draughtsman and engraver. In 1756 he purchased the office of Intendant of the Menus-Plaisirs du Roi, the department of the royal household responsible for court festivities, ceremonies and spectacles, and exerted inexhaustible energy as Grand Ordonnateur during the last 30 years of the monarchy. From 1762, the year in which he purchased a second intendancy, he kept a Journal in which he described such court festivities as those for the marriage of the Dauphin (later Louis XVI) and Marie-Antoinette in the Opéra at Versailles in 1770. Papillon de La Ferté proved to be an able administrator, as his correspondence, memoirs and settlements testify, managing a large budget of about 2,150,000 livres a year and running the Comédie Française and the Comédie Italienne, as well as various festivities and ceremonies, for example the funeral of Louis XV in 1774 at the abbey church of St Denis, near Paris. From ...


(b Weesp, Jan 4, 1726; d Amsterdam, Dec 20, 1798).

Dutch timber merchant, collector, printmaker, print publisher, draughtsman and art theorist. He was one of the most important Dutch dilettanti of the 18th century. His interest in art began at an early age, and from the age of 12 he was taught drawing by Norbert van Bloemen (1670–1746). Two years later he began to learn the timber trade with Johannes Bontekoning, in whose firm, Bontekoning and Aukes, he became a partner in 1756. Ploos’s first mezzotint dates from that year. He made drawings throughout his life, in a technically skilled rather than original style, and designed book illustrations. In 1758 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Cornelis Troost.

In the meantime Ploos van Amstel assembled a fabulous collection of drawings (he possessed over 7000 when he died), prints (including many topographical prints of Amsterdam), paintings, sculptures, enamels, medals, coins, scientific instruments and optical tools, and manuscripts and printed books. His special interest in drawings, particularly those by Dutch artists from the 17th and 18th centuries, is reflected in his ...


Louise Lippincott

(b London, bapt Aug 2, 1701; d London, bur Sanderstead, Sept 15, 1758).

English painter, engraver, print-seller, dealer and collector. The eldest son of a London surgeon, Pond studied with the portrait painter John Vanderbank before entering the St Martin’s Lane Academy, London, in 1720. However, he was most influenced by the Roman Club, a group of young artists and writers under the aegis of Jonathan Richardson the elder. Pond visited Italy in 1725–7 with the painter George Knapton, the painter and poet John Dyer (1700–58) and the antiquary Daniel Wray, all fellow members. In Rome he frequented antiquarian circles around Baron Philipp von Stosch and Pier Leone Ghezzi but learnt little about painting. He returned to England via Paris, meeting the connoisseur and print-seller Pierre-Jean Mariette and initiating a lifelong correspondence.

Once back in London, Pond endured years of obscurity before re-emerging in the late 1730s as a fashionable portrait painter, print-seller and connoisseur. His pastel portraits in the manner of Rosalba Carriera, for example ...


(b Paris, July 11, 1743; d Ile d’Houat, Aug 15, 1795).

French collector, amateur draughtsman and engraver. He entered the army in 1759 but in 1769 bought, with the help of an uncle, a legal sinecure and married a wealthy heiress, Eléonore-Angélique de Beauterre (b 1742), who inherited the fortune of her uncle, Etienne Boucher, in 1778. Saint-Morys had begun collecting in 1769, but it was his wife’s inheritance that enabled him to accumulate between 1779 and 1789 a vast collection of paintings, drawings, prints and works of art, which were housed in his Paris hôtel in the Rue Vivienne and at his castle, the Château d’Hondainville near Beauvais (purchased in 1781). He emigrated to London in 1790 in the wake of the French Revolution. His collections, discovered in the château and seized by the revolutionary authorities in 1793, were transported to Paris; some 12,600 drawings were incorporated into the Musée National (now the Louvre). Among the most celebrated are two sheets of drapery studies by ...


Hélène Guicharnaud

[Richard, Jean-Claude]

(b Paris, 1727; d Paris, 1791).

French collector, patron and printmaker. He was the grandson on his mother’s side of Louis Boullogne (ii). As a younger son, he was expected to enter the priesthood, but preferring to devote himself to the arts, he took only minor orders, becoming a sub-deacon. In 1750 he travelled to England, returning to France via the Netherlands; he brought back with him some Rembrandt etchings, the chiaroscuro effects of which had impressed him. In 1759 he visited Rome and travelled around Italy in company with some students of the Académie de France in Rome. Hugues Taraval accompanied him to Naples; in 1760 he again visited Naples and also Paestum, with Hubert Robert. His association with Jean-Honoré Fragonard also began in Rome. Rosenberg and Brejon have counted 80 red chalk drawings (there were originally more) that Fragonard executed for Saint-Non in Rome, after works by Raphael and Michelangelo, but also after the Baroque artists of the 17th century, such as Carracci, Caravaggio, Rubens and Poussin. Saint-Non and Fragonard stayed in Tivoli, and then together returned to France via the great artistic centres of northern Italy (Siena, Florence, Bologna, Ferrara, Venice, Verona, Parma, Genoa), where ...


Richard C. Mühlberger

(b Dordrecht, March 4, 1710; d The Hague, May 7, 1792).

Dutch painter, glass engraver, printmaker, collector and dealer. He studied with the Dordrecht artist Adriaen van der Burg (1693–1733) from c. 1725 until van der Burg’s death. On 16 October 1733 he began entries in the first of two professional diaries (Dordrecht, Mus. van Gijn) that record in unusual detail the activities of his career until 16 November 1753. In 1733 he took on his first pupil. He taught regularly for the rest of his life: among his pupils were Jan van Os, Joris Ponse (1723–83), Wouter Dam (c. 1726–c. 1785), Gerrit Malleyn (1753–1816), Nicolaas Muys (1740–1808), Jacobus Perkois (1756–1804) and his own great-nephew, the marine painter Martinus Schouman (1770–1848).

In 1736 Schouman became one of the founder-members of the Dordrecht Brotherhood of St Luke, a private society formed for the discussion of art. He gave an exhibition there and was official engraver to the Brotherhood. He also belonged to drinking and debating clubs, and through them and the Brotherhood he met many of the prominent citizens of Dordrecht. In ...


David Rodgers

(b Pomona, Orkneys, July 14, 1721; d London, July 5, 1792).

Scottish engraver, writer and collector, active in England. He was apprenticed to Richard Cooper the elder (d 1764), a portrait engraver in Edinburgh, but in 1745 joined the army of Charles Edward Stuart (the Young Pretender), after whose defeat in 1746 he lay low until 1748. In that year he studied in Rouen under Jean-Baptiste Descamps, and in 1749 he worked in Paris with Jacques-Philippe Lebas. By the time of his arrival in London the following year, he was an accomplished line engraver. His Jacobite sympathies initially precluded royal favour; however, his considerable talent was appreciated, and it was his belligerent character, rather than his politics, that hampered his subsequent career. In 1758, despite Royal encouragement, he turned down Allan Ramsay’s request that he should engrave his portrait of Frederick, Prince of Wales, which provoked a lasting hostility between the two Scots. In 1760 Strange left for Rome. During his five years in Italy he made engravings after Old Masters that brought him great acclaim and membership of the Académie Royale in Paris, and of the academies of Rome, Florence, Bologna and Parma....


(b Paris, Aug 28, 1718; d Paris, Jan 12, 1786).

French government official, writer, collector and amateur painter and engraver. He was the son of Nicolas-Robert Watelet, Receveur-général des Finances in Orléans, and in 1740 inherited his father’s lucrative post, as well as the family fortune. In his youth he travelled in Germany and to Vienna, Naples and Rome; in the latter city he lodged with the Painter to the King, Jean-Baptiste Pierre. By the late 1750s Watelet’s country house near Paris, Le Moulin-Joli, had become a meeting-place for intellectual society, being frequented, among others, by the Comte de Caylus, the Marquis d’Argenson, the poet Jean-François Marmontel (1723–99), the Abbé Jacques Delille (1738–1813) and the Marquise de Pompadour. With their encouragement Watelet published in 1760 L’Art de peindre, a long didactic poem on the principles and techniques of painting, which won him election in 1760 to the Académie Française.

In 1763 Watelet, accompanied by his mistress, Mme Marguerite Le Comte, and by his former teacher, the Abbé Copette, made a journey to Italy, where they were official guests of the King of Sardinia, the French Embassy and the Académie de France in Rome. The trip was commemorated by the publication in ...