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Article

Willemijn Stokvis

(b Constantine, Algeria, Jan 23, 1913; d Paris, Feb 12, 1960).

French painter, lithographer and writer. The Jewish intellectual milieu in which he grew up led to his interest in philosophy and religion, and from 1930 to 1934 he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne. While in Paris, however, he was confronted with modern painting for the first time, and his interest in poetry was awakened. Recognizing a means of expressing his interest in magical phenomena, in 1941 he began to paint and write poetry. His activity in the Résistance and his Jewish ancestry led to his arrest in 1942; by pleading insanity he was able to save himself but was confined to the Sainte Anne asylum, where he wrote poetry and painted. In the autumn of 1944, shortly after leaving the asylum, his first and only collection of poems, Le Sang profond, was published, and he exhibited drawings at the Galerie Arc en Ciel.

During the immediate post-war years Atlan’s work was well received in Paris. He had a one-man show in ...

Article

Paul Hulton

(Antonio Melchiorre)

(b Bologna, Jan 14, 1737; d Gondar, Ethiopia, between 14 Feb and March 3, 1771).

Italian draughtsman and printmaker . He showed early artistic promise and was apprenticed to Giuseppe Civoli (1705–78), a Bolognese painter and professor of architecture at the Accademia Clementina in Bologna. As a student he won the gold medal for architectural design in an open competition at Parma in 1759. He was consequently elected an academician in Bologna at the early age of 22. For his patron, the count and senator Girolamo Ranuzzi, he drew and etched (c. 1760) a notable set of plates of the Palazzo Ranuzzi (now the Palazzo di Giustizia) in Bologna. In 1761 he moved to Rome and began to take commissions as an architectural draughtsman. Here he was recruited to assist the explorer James Bruce of Kinnaird (1730–94) to draw and record Classical remains. For about three years from March 1765 Balugani travelled with Bruce, recording most of the known Classical sites of North Africa and Asia Minor. When Bruce decided to extend his travels to Ethiopia, by way of Egypt and Arabia, to search for the source of the Nile, Balugani accompanied him and made numerous drawings of botanical and zoological specimens, despite having also to compile weather records and travel journals. He was with Bruce when the latter discovered the springs of the Blue Nile (which they believed to be the source of the main river) in ...

Article

Francis Russell

(b ?1715; d London, Feb 7, 1791).

English draughtsman, engraver and dealer. As agent to a number of patrons and subsequently librarian to George III, he was one of the most influential figures in the sphere of collecting in England for some four decades. He was the son of the Rev. John Dalton and younger brother of the Rev. John Dalton, poet and divine, whose connection with Algernon Seymour, Earl of Hertford (later 7th Duke of Somerset), forwarded Richard’s early career in Italy. He had arrived there by 1739 and may have trained in Bologna; by 1741 he was studying under Agostino Masucci in Rome and was already active as a dealer, selling a collection of prints in that year to Henry Clinton, 9th Earl of Lincoln, and cultivating the patronage of Sir Erasmus Philipps, Bart.

In 1749 Dalton visited Calabria and Sicily and then, in his capacity as travelling draughtsman, joined the party of James Caulfeild, 1st Earl of Charlemont, on a tour of Egypt, Turkey and Greece. He was possibly the first English artist to record the ancient monuments of these places. A selection of drawings executed on this tour was engraved by Dalton and published in ...

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Aïn Beida, Jan 20, 1947).

Algerian painter and graphic artist. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Algiers, and in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Ecole des Arts Décoratifs and Institut d’Urbanisme de l’Académie de Paris. After returning to Algeria he worked at the Bureau d’Etudes des Tanneries and the Bureaux d’Etudes des Textiles, and he then went to Tunisia, where he became cultural adviser at the Musée d’Art Moderne in Tunis. Inspired by the calligraphic movement in Arab painting in the 1960s, he explored the potential of abstract calligraphic compositions in graphic art to great effect (e.g. the engravings Testament of the Enemy, 1981) and also utilized such media as wood, silk, parchment and ceramics for this purpose, often with a minimal use of colour. Since 1970 he has exhibited his work in Europe, the Middle East, Japan, South America and the USA, and has won numerous awards.

Third World Biennale of Graphic Art...

Article

Dora Vallier

(b Paris, July 13, 1920; d Montbéliard, Sept 10, 1999).

French painter and printmaker. He attended the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs and travelled in Italy and Algeria to broaden his artistic education. His first solo exhibition took place in 1943 at the château of Montbéliard. Influenced by Klee’s work and by his contact with the art critic Charles Estienne, who as early as 1950 sensed that geometrical abstraction was leading towards a new academicism and pleaded the cause of a freer and more lyrical pictorial expression, Messagier lightened his colours to near transparency and opted for broad, spontaneous brushwork. His landscapes of the Franche-Comté, such as Après-midi montante (1958; Eindhoven, Stedel. Van Abbemus.), expressed his sensitivity to nature and the rhythm of the seasons. From 1960 he began to exhibit abroad and took part in some of the major international events as a representative of new trends in French painting. He also transposed his supple brushwork into numerous engravings and from ...

Article

Christiaan Schuckman

[Speculatie]

(b Nijmegen, bapt May 23, 1648; d before 1709).

Dutch etcher, engraver, draughtsman, inventor and professor of philosophy and mathematics. From 1679 he travelled in Italy, Egypt, the Holy Land and Malta, where he drew ‘modern’ fortifications. After a journey to Berlin in 1683, he probably settled in the province of Holland. Between 1683 and 1688 he developed a method of making colour impressions from a single copperplate (see Prints §III 6.), for which the States of Holland granted him a 15-year patent in 1688. Teyler moved his colour-print workshop to Rotterdam, where he published Architectura militaris. It is probably Jan van Call (1689–after 1748), one of Teyler’s assistants, who passed on the latter’s invention to Pieter Schenck and Gerard Valck, while Mattheus Berckenboom (1667–c. 1722), possibly an assistant in Rotterdam, made colour impressions in Nijmegen between c. 1700 and 1722. In 1698 Teyler’s copperplates were auctioned in Rotterdam. It is difficult to distinguish Teyler’s hand from that of his assistants in the 300–350 or so colour prints that have come down from his workshop....

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Málaga, Aug 15, 1821; d Madrid, Feb 19, 1882).

Spanish lithographer, illustrator and painter. In 1859 he enlisted for the African Campaign in Morocco, and the studies he did in Africa led to drawings for an atlas of the battles in Africa (Madrid, 1860), as well as those for Crónicas de la guerra de Africa (Madrid, 1859) by Emilio Castelar and for Diario (Madrid, 1859–60) by the novelist Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833–91). He promoted a section for lithography at the Escuela de Artes y Oficios in Madrid. An excellent portraitist, he also made numerous drawings and illustrations for newspapers, royal chronicles and for Iconografia española (Madrid, 1855–64) by Valentín Carderera y Solano, as well as lithographs of bullfights. He provided decorative works for various public buildings in Madrid and the provinces.

A. Canovas: Pintores malaqueños del siglo XIX (Málaga, 1908) A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España (Madrid, 1979), p. 356 E. Paez Rios...