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W. C. Foxley


(b Canton, NY, Oct 4, 1861; d Ridgefield, CT, Dec 26, 1909).

American painter, sculptor, illustrator, and writer. In 1878 he began his studies at the newly formed School of the Fine Arts at Yale University in New Haven, CT, remaining there until 1880. This, along with a few months at the Art Students League in New York in 1886, was his only period of formal art training. In 1881 he roamed through the Dakotas, Montana, the Arizona Territory, and Texas to document an era that was fast vanishing. He returned east and in 1882 had his first drawing published (25 Feb) in Harper’s Weekly. Further commissions for illustrations followed, including that for Theodore Roosevelt’s Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail (New York, 1888). He became a business partner for a bar in Kansas City, MO, but its failure, coupled with his continued success as an illustrator, convinced him that he would do better to record the West visually rather than help to develop it financially....


(b Arthabaska, Qué., April 5, 1869; d Daytona Beach, FL, Jan 29, 1932).

Canadian painter, sculptor and illustrator. He was educated at Arthabaska College and Nicolet seminary. Brought up in an ecclesiastical environment, in 1889 he helped to decorate the walls of the parish church of Arthabaska and the chapel of the local Collège du Sacré-Coeur. In 1890 he moved to France where he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Léon Bonnat as well as at the Académie Julian and Académie Colarossi. He remained in France until 1908, returning only briefly to Canada in 1893.

While in France Suzor-Coté painted many rural landscape works in a controlled Impressionist style, as in Return from the Harvest Field (1903; Ottawa, N.G.). He also painted occasional history subjects, such as the Death of Montcalm (1902; Quebec, Mus. Qué.), which depicts the death of the French commander in Canada, Louis-Joseph Montcalm (1712–59), after the defeat by the British. In 1908 he returned to Canada, setting up a studio in Montreal, and he then spent his summers in Arthabaska and the rest of the year in the studio. Many of his works were then Impressionist landscapes, such as ...


Regina Soria

(b New York, Feb 26, 1836; d Rome, Jan 29, 1923).

American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer (see fig.). He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), and especially Nino Costa (1827–1902). This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are ...