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Carolyn Kinder Carr

(b Williamsburg, IN, Nov 1, 1849; d New York, Oct 25, 1916).

American painter and printmaker. Chase received his early training in Indianapolis from the portrait painter Barton S. Hays (1826–75). In 1869 he went to New York to study at the National Academy of Design where he exhibited in 1871. That year he joined his family in St Louis, where John Mulvaney (1844–1906) encouraged him to study in Munich. With the support of several local patrons, enabling him to live abroad for the next six years, Chase entered the Königliche Akademie in Munich in 1872. Among his teachers were Alexander von Wagner (1838–1919), Karl Theodor von Piloty and Wilhelm von Diez (1839–1907). Chase also admired the work of Wilhelm Leibl. The school emphasized bravura brushwork, a technique that became integral to Chase’s style, favoured a dark palette and encouraged the study of Old Master painters, particularly Diego Velázquez and Frans Hals. Among Chase’s friends in Munich were the American artists Walter Shirlaw, J. Frank Currier and Frederick Dielman (...

Article

Aya Louisa McDonald

[Kuroda, Kiyoteru; Seiki]

(b Kagoshima Prefect., June 29, 1866; d Tokyo, July 15, 1924).

Japanese painter. He is best known for introducing the plein-air palette of French Impressionism to Japan. He was the most successful and politically influential advocate of Western-style painting (Yōga; see Japan §VI 5., (iv)) in Japan at the turn of the century. Born into a wealthy aristocratic family, Kuroda was adopted by his uncle Viscount Kuroda Kiyotsuna (1830–1917) and educated in French and English in preparation for a career in the Foreign Service. In his teens he studied pencil sketching and watercolours under Hosoda Shūji (fl 19th century), a minor follower of the Western-style painter Takahashi Yūichi.

In 1884 Kuroda was sent to Paris to prepare for a career in law. It was then that his interest in art was reawakened, not only by the city of Paris itself but also by his contact and friendship with other Japanese such as Fuji Masazō (...

Article

Jane Munro

(b Birkenhead, Dec 28, 1860; d London, March 18, 1942).

English painter. The son of a painter, Philip Steer (d 1871), he joined the Department of Coins and Medals at the British Museum in 1875 but found the demands of the Civil Service examination too rigorous and turned to painting in 1878. He studied first at the Gloucester School of Art under John Kemp and from 1880 to 1881 at the South Kensington Drawing Schools. He was rejected by the Royal Academy Schools and went to Paris in October 1882, where he enrolled first at the Académie Julian under William-Adolphe Bouguereau. In January 1883 he transferred to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and studied under Alexandre Cabanel.

Steer exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1883 and 1885 and at the Paris Salon in 1884. These early paintings were constrained student works, but after his return to England in the summer of 1884 he assimilated contemporary French painting. The popular rural naturalism of Jules Bastien-Lepage was particularly influential and evident in ...