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(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...

Article

Catherine Harding

(b Lomello, Dec 24, 1296; d Avignon, c. 1354).

Italian parish priest, manuscript illuminator and scholar. His drawings explored the connections between vision, reason and spirituality. In particular, he was drawn to the idea of training the ‘inner eye’ of reason, and he hoped that his images would provide tools for spiritual discernment. He worked as a schoolmaster and priest until 1329, when he fled Pavia for political reasons and entered the papal court in Avignon. One year later, he was employed as a scribe in the office of the papal penitentiary.

He produced two illuminated works, both of which are untitled (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Pal. lat. 1993 and Vat. lat. 6435). The former, known simply as the Palatinus manuscript, encompasses 52 large individual parchment sheets drawn in pen and ink with images on both sides; they feature schematic compositions that combine portolan charts, zodiacs, calendars and human figures, to form complex composite images. The second work, the Vaticanus manuscript, is done in pen and ink on paper and is more of an author’s daybook, collecting thoughts, meditations and images on a variety of topics. His work was not known until the publication of the Palatinus manuscript by R. G. Salomon in ...

Article

David Rodgers

(b Glasgow, April 20, 1707; d Edinburgh, June 2, 1776).

Scottish printer and educator. He was of humble origin, but determined to become a printer. In 1739 he went to Paris where he purchased fine and rare books that he sold in London for a profit. Two years later he had established a bookshop in Glasgow and began to print with such success that in 1743 he was appointed printer to the university. Foulis’s Iliad (1757) and Odyssey (1758) are among the finest examples of 18th-century typography. From 1751–3 he travelled in France and the Netherlands purchasing prints and over 350 paintings to provide the nucleus of the teaching collection of an academy of fine arts that he intended to establish in Glasgow on his return. The Foulis Academy (founded 1753) was housed in the university and financed by loans from Glasgow merchants. Tuition was free and the academy was the first to award scholarships for foreign study. It also held the first public art exhibition in ...

Article

Stephen Stuart-Smith

(Rowton)

(b Brighton, Feb 22, 1882; d Harefield, Middx [now in London], Nov 17, 1940).

English sculptor, letter-cutter, typographic designer, calligrapher, engraver, writer and teacher. He received a traditional training at Chichester Technical and Art School (1897–1900), where he first developed an interest in lettering. He also became fascinated by the Anglo-Saxon and Norman stone-carvings in Chichester Cathedral. In 1900 Gill moved to London to become a pupil of William Douglas Caröe (1857–1938), architect to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. He took classes in practical masonry at Westminster Institute and in writing and illuminating at the Central School of Art and Design, where he was deeply influenced by the calligrapher Edward Johnston. Johnston’s meticulous training was to be a perfect preparation for Gill’s first commissions for three-dimensional inscriptions in stone, the foundation stone for Caröe’s St Barnabas and St James the Greater in Walthamstow, London, and the lettering for the lychgate at Charles Harrison Townsend’s St Mary’s, Great Warley, Essex. Further commissions followed after Gill left Caröe in ...

Article

(b London, Sept 9, 1694; d London, Dec 23, 1739).

English painter and illustrator of Dutch origin. He was first instructed in drawing by his father, John Vanderbank the elder (d 1717), a tapestry-weaver of Soho, London. He worked at Kneller’s Academy from its foundation in 1711 but broke away in 1720 and with Louis Chéron set up a new school in St Martin’s Lane, London, at which a greater emphasis was placed on life drawing. He had begun as a portrait painter and in the 1720s attracted sitters who included Isaac Newton (1725; version, London, Royal Soc.), Martin Folkes (untraced; mezzotint by J. Faber, 1737) and Thomas Guy (London, Guy’s Hosp.). Royal commissions included George I (1726; Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col.) and Queen Caroline (1736; Goodwood House, W. Sussex). At that time he also did some decorative painting, executing designs on a staircase at 11 Bedford Row, London (c. 1720); this commission included an equestrian portrait of ...

Article

Shearer West

(b ?Yarmouth, 25 April ?1721; d London, Feb 6, 1786).

English draughtsman, illustrator and painter. In 1735 he was apprenticed to a goldsmith; he studied at the St Martin’s Lane Academy, London, where he was influenced by Gravelot. He worked briefly as a decorative painter in partnership with Francis Hayman, presenting topographical roundels of Christ’s Hospital, St Thomas’s Hospital and Greenwich Hospital to the Foundling Hospital (all before 1748; in situ).

Wale was among the most prolific book illustrators of the third quarter of the 18th century, producing illustrations for over 100 publications. The fact that he did not engrave his own designs may have contributed to the enormity of his output: he usually supplied only a pen-and-ink drawing, sometimes tinted, which would then be engraved; he could also be repetitive. Around 1751 he designed a series of prints of Vauxhall Gardens, which were etched and engraved by Thomas Bowles (b c. 1712) and Johann Sebastian Müller (...