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Richard Temple

[Gr. eikon: ‘image’]

Wooden panel with a painting, usually in tempera, of a holy person or one of the traditional images of Orthodox Christianity (see fig.), the religion of the Byzantine empire practised today mainly in Greece and Russia (see Early Christian and Byzantine art, §VI, and Post-Byzantine art, §II, 1). The word also has a range of related but disparate meanings, from the abstract and philosophical to the purely literal. For example, it is still used in modern Greek to mean an image or picture in the ordinary sense. In antiquity, Platonists and Neo-Platonists held that the material, earthly world reflects, or is the image of, the higher and divine cosmos; the Old Testament provides the theme of man as the icon of God in the temple of the world; and St Paul declared that ‘Christ is the icon of God’ (2 Corinthians 4:4). Thus the idea of the icon is associated with cosmology and the theology of the Incarnation. In the Early Christian period, disputes over such questions as whether or not God can be known or depicted or the invisible can be seen were part of an intense debate surrounding the acceptability, meaning and function of images of Christ. All this was bound up with the complex questions of Christology that exercised the best minds of the period. Whole communities and nations were divided into Orthodox and heretics over the problem of defining the two natures of Christ, the relationship between his humanity and his divinity. The theory and belief system of icons was developed by theologians between the 4th and the 9th centuries, though only a few icons survive from then and up to the 12th century. Once established, however, the doctrinal principles never changed, and the study of icons is as much a matter of theology as of art. Subject-matter, form and composition did not deviate from the established dogma on which they depended; indeed, icons have been called theology in colour (Trubetskoy)....


Robert Ousterhout

[pl. parekklesia]

Generic Greek name for the subsidiary chapel of a Byzantine church, as distinct from the main structure variously called ekklesia, naos or katholikon. Parekklesia vary considerably in size, position, architectural form and decoration. They frequently form an integral part of the overall church design, and many are distinguished externally by a dome. Often parekklesia are later additions that occasionally are not aligned with pre-existing elements. Parekklesia were also constructed as free-standing chapels, which could serve for such purposes as the private worship of an individual or family. Burial and commemoration, however, seem to have been the most common uses, as is indicated by the surviving decorative programmes and documentary evidence. As mass could only be said at each altar once a day, it is probable that parekklesia developed to accommodate extra space for worship and additional altars.

Parekklesia were built according to several planning schemes with respect to the main church. In a satellite arrangement they flank the church and are either aligned with the narthex to the west, as in the ...