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Jeffrey West

[Ger. Byzantinische Blüthenblatt]

Term used to describe a wide range of ‘floral’ motifs prominent in Western art from the 11th century to the end of the 12th. The German term was first used to describe generically similar motifs that appear in 10th-century Byzantine art, for example in the Hippiatrika Codex (Berlin, Preuss. Staatsbib. Kultbes., cod. Phillipps 1538, fol. 39v). The early 12th-century reference by Theophilus to ‘folia graeca’ may refer to Byzantine ‘leaf-flowers’ although the term is not documented in other sources. The variation of the constituent leaves is common to both Eastern and Western ornaments. Unlike the rosette, the leaves typically rise from the junction of the flower and stem. Their origins may lie in the Classical palmette, although Sasanian ornaments provide the immediate models for the Byzantine flowers. Whereas in Byzantine art the flowers are conservative in form and detail, Western blossoms are characteristically individualized. In the decorated headpieces of Byzantine manuscripts (see above), the flowers occupy the centres and interstitial spaces of series of delicately painted roundels. In both Middle Byzantine metalwork and Western art the flowers are used as the decorative terminals of running scrollwork....

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Naos  

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Robert Ousterhout

[pl. parekklesia]

Generic Greek name for the subsidiary chapel of a Byzantine church, as distinct from the main structure variously called ekklesia, naos or katholikon. Parekklesia vary considerably in size, position, architectural form and decoration. They frequently form an integral part of the overall church design, and many are distinguished externally by a dome. Often parekklesia are later additions that occasionally are not aligned with pre-existing elements. Parekklesia were also constructed as free-standing chapels, which could serve for such purposes as the private worship of an individual or family. Burial and commemoration, however, seem to have been the most common uses, as is indicated by the surviving decorative programmes and documentary evidence. As mass could only be said at each altar once a day, it is probable that parekklesia developed to accommodate extra space for worship and additional altars.

Parekklesia were built according to several planning schemes with respect to the main church. In a satellite arrangement they flank the church and are either aligned with the narthex to the west, as in the ...

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