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(b Cefalù, Sicily, c. 1572; d Naples, Dec 12, 1645).

Sicilian painter and sculptor. He was probably trained in Sicily, yet he is recorded in Naples from 1594, and his artistic roots are Neapolitan. The painting of the Presentation in the Temple (1599; Naples, S Maria la Nova) is his earliest datable work. It demonstrates that Azzolino was already aware of trends in late 16th-century Neapolitan painting and that he knew the art of Belisario Corenzio, Fabrizio Santafede and Luigi Rodriguez (fl 1594–1606). He took his lead at first from Corenzio and was, like him, an expert fresco painter. In 1599 Azzolino was commissioned to execute the decoration (untraced) for the church of the Spirito Santo, Naples. In the canvases and frescoes that he painted between 1606 and 1610 for the church of Gesù e Maria, Naples, and in the earlier Pentecost for the church of S Francesco at Caiazzo (in situ; his only signed work) it is possible to discern the influences of both Corenzio and Santafede. An awareness of the new clarity and naturalism of the Florentine reformers Lodovico Cigoli, Agostino Ciampelli and Domenico Passignano had spread in Naples through Santafede, whose role in the development of Azzolino’s style was fundamental. Both artists subsequently remained faithful to the devotional art of the Counter-Reformation, although they later demonstrated an awareness of the innovative work of Caravaggio. Azzolino countered both the excessive intellectual subtleties of Mannerism and the experimental naturalism of Caravaggio with serene and familiar renderings of sacred stories such as the ...


Adam Miłobędzki

Italian family of architects and sculptors, active in Rome and Poland. Together they created the only significant body of work beyond the Alps in the early Roman Baroque style of Carlo Maderno. Matteo Castelli (b Melide, c. 1560; d 1632) was apprenticed in Rome to his relative Domenico Fontana, and then for 20 years, from c. 1593, he worked with Maderno. By the beginning of the 17th century he was Maderno’s leading collaborator, involved in such works as the decoration (1595; with the sculptor Francesco Rossi) of the chapel of Cardinal Rusticucci in Il Gesù, Rome, to plans by Maderno, and on the façade of S Susanna (1597–1603), Rome, as well as the stone-built Palazzo Mattei (1599–1601). Matteo’s independent projects (after 1601) were largely developments of designs by Maderno, interpreting his moderately linear forms in a more decorative manner. The most important were the interiors of three chapels in S Andrea della Valle, Rome, notably the Barberini Chapel (...


J. J. Martín González

(b Toro, 1568; d Toro, 1619).

Spanish sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Pedro Ducete Díez and trained in Palencia, moving to Valladolid and later back to Toro, where he had a workshop. He collaborated with Esteban de Rueda in a partnership whose abundant production justifies the description of the Toro workshop. In 1592 Ducete carved a Crucifixion and a statue of the Virgin for S Martin, Pinilla de Toro. He executed large retablos (1602) in S Sepulcro, Toro, where the poignancy in his work is apparent in the St Andrew and derives from the influence of Juan de Juni; in S Sofia, Toro; and in S Pedro, Villalpando, with the fine relief of the Granting of the Chasuble to St Ildefonso (1607), also influenced by Juni. The ample folds in the garments of all these figures were executed by Rueda and show the influence of Gregorio Fernández. In 1618...


Joanne A. Rubino

(b Recanati, 1580; d Recanati, 1655).

Italian sculptor, painter, architect and bronze caster. He is known primarily for his bronzes, which combine an adherence to traditional standards of 15th-century Lombardy and a move towards the more dramatic qualities of the Baroque. With his brother, Tarquino Jacometti (1570–1638), he was instructed in drawing and sculpting by his uncle, Antonio Calcagni, but the influence of his lifelong teacher Cristoforo Roncalli was always uppermost in his works. The brothers became business partners, collaborating in casting bronze low reliefs, fountains and baptismal fonts, but Pietro Paolo also produced individual items.

The Jacometti brothers collaborated in such bronze works as the fountain (1619–20) in the Piazza della Madonna, Loreto; the Galli fountain, Loreto; the fountain (1619) in the Piazza del Popolo, Faenza; and on fonts in Recanati Cathedral (1622) and S Giovanni Battista, Osimo (1622–8). Pietro Paolo also produced the bronze portrait of ...


Ana Marín Fidalgo

(b ?1568; d Seville, 1632).

Spanish sculptor, wood-carver and architect. He was trained in the Sevillian sculptural tradition of the late 16th century, subsequently using wood as the medium for most of his work and coming to architecture via wood-carving. His most notable work includes a retable (1601) for the church of the Hospital de las Cinco Llagas, Seville, to a design of Asensio de Maeda (fl 1563–1601), and the retable (1619) in the chapel of S Pedro, Seville Cathedral, both of which, like the rest of his oeuvre, display the growing turgescence characteristic of early Baroque architecture in the first decades of the 17th century.

From c. 1612 to 1628 Diego was diocesan architect in Seville: his plan for the north portal of the church of S Lorenzo (1625) demonstrates a masterful use of the Mannerist vocabulary. As surveyor to the fabric of the Alcázar (...


Manfred Wundram

[It. maniera]

Name given to the stylistic phase in the art of Europe between the High Renaissance (see Renaissance, §4) and the Baroque, covering the period from c. 1510–20 to 1600. It is also sometimes referred to as late Renaissance, and the move away from High Renaissance classicism is already evident in the late works of Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael, and in the art of Michelangelo from the middle of his creative career. Although 16th-century artists took the formal vocabulary of the High Renaissance as their point of departure, they used it in ways that were diametrically opposed to the harmonious ideal it originally served. There are thus good grounds for considering Mannerism as a valid and autonomous stylistic phase, a status first claimed for it by art historians of the early 20th century. The term is also applied to a style of painting and drawing practised by artists working in Antwerp slightly earlier, from ...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Vergara, 1562; d Lima, 1635).

Spanish architect and sculptor active in Peru. He was trained as a sculptor by Cristóbal Velázquez (d 1616), a Mannerist of the school of Alonso Berruguete. He arrived in Lima c. 1599 and carved the life-sized reliefs of Christ and the Apostolate (1608) in cedar above the chests in the sacristy of the cathedral. They are imposing but do not strive for realism, betraying the influence of the Antique, particularly in the disposition and layout of the channelled folds and drapery and through references to Renaissance classicism. In 1614 he was appointed Maestro Mayor of Lima Cathedral, a post which he retained until his death. He is also known to have worked on the stone façade of S Lázaro. Following the earthquakes of 1606 and 1609, various architects were consulted on how to re-roof the cathedral. Wooden vaults were rejected, and Martínez de Arrona proposed Gothic ribbed vaults, executed in brick. This proposal was followed, and the church was completed by ...


Brian C. Barnes and Laurie G. Winters

(b Florence, 1571; d Florence, March 20, 1625).

Italian sculptor. He was long thought to have been the father of Francesco Mochi. This misconception lingers, even in many modern publications, and is doubtless due to the fact that he did indeed have a sculptor son called Francesco Mochi (1603–49), but—like his brother Stefano Mochi—he was a minor figure, and his work is virtually unknown. Mochi trained in the early 1590s with the Mannerist sculptor Giovanni Battista Caccini and later in that decade collaborated with him in Pisa on a set of bronze doors for the Porta Regia of the cathedral. Mochi’s contribution included the large bronze panel of the Incarnation of the Virgin (c. 1598–9) and portions of the decorative frieze. After 1604 he worked in Florence, modelling small decorative sculptures in the grand-ducal workshop, the Opificio delle Pietre Dure. His best-known pieces are the exquisite inlaid stone relief of Grand Duke Cosimo II de’ Medici Praying...


J. J. Martín González

(b Alcalá la Real (Jaén), bapt March 16, 1568; d Seville, June 18, 1649).

Spanish sculptor. He strove constantly for perfection, and, although he did not paint his own statues, he arranged for polychrome to be added by the most competent masters. Montañés was frequently sought for prestigious sculptural commissions in Seville, and he ran the most complete and organized workshop in the city, with an enormous production, similar to that run by Gregorio Fernández in Valladolid. The names of many of his collaborators are known, which implies that he was the director of a large enterprise. He planned and directed work and carried out the execution of appropriate parts or whole works as requested by his customers.

According to Francisco Pacheco (1649), Montañés was trained in Granada. His master was probably Pablo de Rojas, whose influence on him is apparent. When Montañés arrived in Granada, around 1579, the high altar of the monastery of S Jerónimo was being completed by the Sevillian sculptor Juan Bautista Vázquez. Montañés returned to Seville ...


Germán Ramello Asensio

(b Santiago de Compostela, c. 1576; d Monforte de Lemos, 1636).

Spanish sculptor. He spent his life in Galicia, remaining based in Orense after moving there as a child. In Orense he trained under Alonso Martinez de Montanchez (fl 1594–before 1615), but as early as 1598 he was already accepting commissions, including the St Roque in Orense Cathedral. Moure visited Castile, where he was deeply influenced by the work of Juan de Juni, and this is apparent in the retable with the figure of St Esteban (1603) for the church in Villar de Sandias. Moure’s work slowly developed towards an expressive and detailed realism, which led him to depict hair and wrinkles, veins and tendons as well as blood and tears in an almost exaggerated manner; this is seen in St Bartolomé of 1608 in S Maria de Beade, Rivadavia, and later in the St Mary of Egypt (1621–5) in the choir-stalls of Lugo Cathedral. In ...


(b Florence, March 6, 1550; d Naples, ?Feb 1622).

Italian sculptor. He was a pupil of Giambologna in Florence, as he stated in a testimony in which he accused his master of impiety. He settled in Naples in 1573 and for half a century was the city’s leading sculptor. In 1575–7 he worked on the statue of the River Papyrus, a Nereid and other minor elements for the fountain in the Piazza Pretoria in Palermo. This fountain was executed in the 1550s by the Florentine sculptor Francesco Camilliani (d 1586) and was moved in 1574 from Florence to Palermo, where it was enlarged under the direction of Francesco’s son Camillo Camilliani. Naccherino soon introduced into his work expressive features more suitable to the spiritual climate of Naples, which was deeply influenced by the Counter-Reformation (Wittkower). In the funerary monument to Alfonso Sánchez (1588–9; Naples, SS Annunziata) and the Immaculate Virgin (1594; Cava dei Tirreni, Salerno, S Francesco da Paola), formal Mannerist elegance and pious sentiment are combined. His major work during this period is a marble ...


(b Lodi, c. 1569–70; d Graz, bur March 6, 1633).

Italian painter, architect, engineer and medallist, active in Austria. He trained as a painter in Venice, probably in the workshop of Tintoretto. Although no dated or signed works from his Venetian period are known, a number of paintings are now attributed to him that were earlier ascribed to the circle of Tintoretto, including the Resurrection (Stuttgart, Staatsgal.), the Flagellation (Prague Castle) and the Triumph of Virtue (Madrid, Prado), all between 1584 and 1589. Around 1589 Pomis entered the service of Archduke Ferdinand II, later Holy Roman Emperor, who appointed him official painter to the court in Graz in 1597. In the service of the Archduke, Pomis travelled in 1598 to Rome, Loreto and Spain, in 1601 to Hungary and in 1608 to Florence. His works from this period include an altarpiece representing the Apotheosis of the Counter-Reformation (1602; Graz, St Anton von Padua), an energetic composition probably influenced by Tintoretto, a painting of the ...