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Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b ?Munich, fl 1535; d Munich, 1567).

German sculptor, mason and medallist. In 1536 he became a master sculptor in Munich and shortly afterwards entered the service of Ludwig X, Duke of Bavaria. He moved to Landshut in 1537 to work on the construction of the Italian wing of the ducal Stadtresidenz. In 1555 he travelled to Neuburg an der Donau to oversee the shipment of stone for the palace’s chimneys. He was influenced by and may have assisted Thomas Hering, the sculptor of these chimneys (See under Hering, Loy). Also in 1555 he reverted to Munich citizenship.

The few surviving examples of his sculpture show him to have been an accomplished if somewhat derivative artist. Many seem to have been commissioned by Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria, who paid him an annual salary from 1558 (and perhaps as early as 1551) to 1567. Aesslinger’s limestone reliefs (both 1550) of the Massacre of the Innocents...

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Maria Teresa Fiorio

[Marco Ferreri; Ferrari d’Antonio d’Agrate]

(b Agrate, c. 1504; d Milan, c. 1574).

Italian sculptor. He came from a Lombard family of sculptors, collaborating with his brother Gianfrancesco on a funerary monument to Sforzino Sforza (1524–31) in S Maria della Steccata, Parma. Records show that Marco was in the service of Milan Cathedral from 1522. From 1541 to 1571 he worked for the Opera del Duomo and may have contributed reliefs for the façade of the Certosa di Pavia. This suggests that his style was formed by the classicizing environment of Agostino Busti, Andrea Fusina and Cristoforo Lombardo. In 1547 d’Agrate was contracted to complete the four remaining sarcophagi, with reclining figures above, for the Trivulzio Chapel in S Nazaro Maggiore, Milan. The chapel had been left incomplete by Bramantino and was continued by Lombardo. The austere funerary monument of Giovanni del Conte (Milan, S Lorenzo) dates from 1556 to 1558. The architectural structure is the work of Vincenzo Seregni, but the recumbent effigy of the deceased is by d’Agrate....

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[il Bologna; il Varignana; il Vecchio Bolognese]

(b Varignana, c. 1460–70; d Bologna, May 12, 1539).

Italian sculptor and architect. He was the son of Giovanni da Varignana and is mentioned in a contemporary poem as a pupil of Andrea Sansovino. According to Vasari, after the discovery in 1506 of the Laokoon (1st century ad; Rome, Vatican, Mus. Pio-Clementino), Aimo participated in a contest arranged by Bramante to make the best copy in wax of the ancient marble statue for later casting in bronze. His fellow competitors were Zaccaria Zacchi, Alonso Berruguete and Jacopo Sansovino. Raphael, who had been appointed as judge, decided in favour of Sansovino.

A payment to Aimo of 21 January 1511 documents two sculptures for the lunette of the Porta Magna of S Petronio, Bologna: an archivolt relief depicting a half-length figure of Moses, and a statue of St Ambrose. The latter was commissioned to provide a symmetrical counterpart to Jacopo della Quercia’s St Petronius, which is also in the lunette. St Ambrose’s robe, held together by a clasp, is gathered up to hip level by the right hand; below this is rich drapery with numerous dish-shaped folds. The figure as a whole is stockier than della Quercia’s and stands upright in contrast to the Gothic swing of ...

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Richard Schofield and Janice Shell

(b Pavia, c. 1447; d Milan, Aug 28, 1522).

Italian sculptor and architect. He was principally active in Bergamo, Cremona, Milan and Pavia. His professional success, in terms of the architectural and sculptural commissions and official appointments that he received, was far greater than that of any of his contemporaries in Lombardy in the late 15th century, including Bramante. Amadeo’s influence in both fields, for example in his use of all’antica ornament of local origin, was considerable.

He was trained as a sculptor and evidently apprenticed to Francesco Solari (fl 1464–71) in Milan and at the Certosa di Pavia (see Pavia, §2, (i)). In 1466 Amadeo assisted in the decoration of the large cloister of the Certosa and was apparently responsible for the terracotta lavabo in the small cloister. His first signed work, directly influenced by the Late Gothic style of Solari, is the carved portal in the small cloister with a lunette of the ...

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[Bartolommeo]

(b Settignano, nr Florence, June 18, 1511; d Florence, April 13, 1592).

Italian sculptor and architect. He was a major figure in Italian art in the second and third quarters of the 16th century. His extensive travels in north and central Italy gave him an unequalled understanding of developments in architecture and sculpture in the era of Mannerism. His style was based inevitably on the example of Michelangelo but was modified by the suaver work of Jacopo Sansovino. In both sculpture and architecture Ammanati was a highly competent craftsman, and his masterpieces, the tombs of Marco Mantova Benavides and two members of the del Monte family, the Fountain of Juno and the Fountain of Neptune and the courtyard of the Palazzo Pitti, are among the finest works of the period.

Orphaned at the age of 12, Ammanati earnt his living in the ‘Academy’ of Baccio Bandinelli c. 1523–7, after which time he left Florence, which was in political turmoil, for Venice. Jacopo Sansovino had just arrived there after the Sack of Rome (...

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Marjorie Trusted

(b Azpeitia, Guipúzcoa, c. 1540; d Pamplona, Nov 30, 1588).

Spanish sculptor. His works in alabaster and wood in the north-east region of Spain decisively influenced late 16th-century sculpture in that area. Echoes of major Italian sculptors’ works strongly suggest that he trained in Italy, although there is no evidence of this. By 1565 Ancheta was in Valladolid, but shortly after this he is likely to have assisted Gaspar Becerra on the retable at S Clara, Briviesca. Becerra’s grandiose Roman Mannerist style, imbued with the Classicism of ancient Roman and Italian Mannerist sculpture, lies behind Ancheta’s art. He probably also worked with Becerra around 1558 on the retable in Astorga Cathedral. He continued to be active in and around Valladolid and at Burgos and was named in Juan de Juni’s will as the only sculptor capable of completing Juni’s retable at S Maria del Mediavilla in Medina de Ríoseco, although this was actually completed by Esteban Jordán. From about 1575 to 1578...

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[Annichini; Nichini; Nichino]

Italian family of gem-engravers. Francesco Anichini (b Bagnacavallo, fl 1449–1526; d ?1545), active in Ferrara, was highly praised by his contemporaries, including Vasari and Jacopo Tagliacarne (fl late 15th century). He was also criticized for being self-willed and slow-working. From 1492 to 1497 he is recorded as having worked for Isabella d’Este, Marchioness of Mantua, who referred to him in a letter as ‘il migliore maestro d’Italia’. Documents indicate that Francesco supplied her in 1492 with a turquoise Head of a Child, some rubies and a cameo, in 1494 with gems for rings and in 1496 with two turquoises with figures of Orpheus and Victory, after a design by the Marchioness, and a gem with a symbolic emblem (all untraced). For a physician from Ferrara, Francesco carved a glow-worm in lapis lazuli (untraced) in such a way that the natural gold veins of the stone appeared as the luminous parts of the insect’s body. In ...

Article

Steven F. Ostrow

[il Bresciano; Prospero da Brescia]

(b Brescia, 1555–65; d Rome, 1592).

Italian sculptor. According to Baglione, he went to Rome from his native Brescia as a youth. He studied anatomy and the art of ancient Rome, and he gained fame for his anatomical models and small bozzetti. His skill as a modeller resulted in several commissions from Gregory XIII, including stucco angels (1580–81) for the Pauline Chapel and the Scala Regia in the Vatican. The success of these elegant, classicizing figures led to the commission (after 1585) for the sculptural components of the tomb of Gregory XIII in St Peter’s, consisting of a seated statue of the Pope, allegorical figures of Charity, Faith, Religion and Justice, and two angels bearing the papal arms. The tomb has undergone numerous transformations and much of its sculpture has been lost; its original appearance is recorded, however, in several engravings and in a drawing by Ciro Ferri (Florence, Uffizi). The surviving stucco figures of ...

Article

Antico  

Charles Avery

[Alari-Bonacolsi, Pier Jacopo di Antonio]

(b Mantua, c. 1460; d Gazzuolo, 1528).

Italian sculptor. An expert in goldsmith work, bronze sculpture and medals, he earned his nickname ‘Antico’ because of his ‘astonishing penetration of antiquity’ (Nesselrath). He achieved lasting fame through his small-scale re-creations (often also reinterpretations) of famous, but often fragmentary, statues of antiquity (e.g. the Apollo Belvedere, Rome, Vatican, Mus. Pio-Clementino, and the Spinario, Rome, Mus. Conserv.). Most of these bronze statuettes were made for the Gonzaga family, notably for Ludovico, Bishop of Mantua, and for Isabella d’Este, wife of Francesco II Gonzaga, 4th Marchese of Mantua. Antico also restored ancient marble statues and acted as an adviser to collectors.

A birth date of 1460 has been calculated on the basis of Antico’s earliest recorded commission (1479), and he is presumed to have been born in Mantua because his father, a butcher, owned a house there and he himself was granted the privilege of owning a stall in the meat market by Federico I Gonzaga, 3rd Marchese of Mantua. A training as a goldsmith is inferred from the fact that he began as a medallist in relief and in intaglio. In addition, he is documented (see below) as the maker of a pair of silver gilt vases and later demonstrated great skill at casting and chasing bronze statuettes, and at gilding and inlaying them with silver. His restoration of antique marble statues also implies an expertise in working that material, but nothing is known of how he acquired this skill....

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François-Auguste de Montêquin

(b Burgos, 1526–7; d Mexico City, 1593).

Mexican architect and sculptor of Spanish birth. In 1541 he moved from his native city to Madrid, where he served as an apprentice to Luis de Vega, one of the architects working in the High Renaissance style for Emperor Charles V. Arciniega worked with Vega in the remodelling of the Alcázar at Madrid. At intervals between 1542 and 1548 he worked under the direction of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón as a sculptor on the Plateresque façade of the university at Alcalá de Henares. He was possibly also responsible for the main retable in the church of Santiago at Guadalajara.

In 1554 Arciniega arrived in New Spain (now Mexico) with his brother Luis de Arciniega (1537–99), who was also an architect. He settled in Puebla de los Angeles (now Puebla) and worked there between 1554 and 1558, primarily engaged in a large number of public works as master mason. He established his reputation with the fountain that he constructed (...

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Phyllis Pray Bober

(b Bologna, 1474–5; d Bologna, Nov 19, 1552).

Italian painter, sculptor, illuminator, printmaker and draughtsman . He was born into a family of painters, and his youthful facility reportedly astonished his contemporaries. His work developed in the Emilian–Ferrarese tradition of Ercole de’ Roberti, Lorenzo Costa the elder and, above all, Francesco Francia. Until the re-evaluation by Longhi, critical assessment of Amico’s oeuvre was over-reliant on literary sources, especially Vasari’s unsympathetic account of an eccentric, half-insane master working so rapidly with both hands (the ‘chiaro’ in one, the ‘scuro’ in the other) that he was able to finish decorating an entire house façade in one day.

Longhi presented Amico as a creative master whose expressive intensity and sensitive use of colour rescued Bolognese painting of the early 16th century from sterile echoes of Raphael. Today Aspertini is viewed as an influential precursor of Mannerism, and his highly individual study of antiquity has been brought to the fore by the publication of his sketchbooks. Amico was not a mere imitator of ancient artists, but their imaginative rival, whether in his grotesques derived from the decorations of Nero’s Domus Aurea in Rome (e.g. the Parma sketchbook and the borders of his ...

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Thomas Martin

(b Padua, c. 1559; d Pisa, between 27 July and Nov 3, 1606).

Italian sculptor . After Girolamo Campagna, he was the leading sculptor in Venice at the end of the 16th century and was particularly gifted in working bronze.

Aspetti came from an artistic family: his grandfather Guido Minio (fl 1511–16), called Lazzaro, was a founder, while his uncle Tiziano Minio was a stuccoist and sculptor. Aspetti probably received his earliest training in the family workshop and may also have collaborated with Campagna. Doubtless through family connections, in 1577 in Venice Aspetti entered the service of Giovanni Grimani, Patriarch of Aquileia. Grimani was a distinguished patron of contemporary art, and his palazzo housed the finest and most extensive collection of antiquities outside Rome. Aspetti worked for the Patriarch for 16 years and hence, unlike any other Venetian artist of his day, began his career as a kind of court artist serving one particular patron. The Grimani were partisans of central Italian Mannerist art, and the family palazzo at S Maria Formosa in Venice contained stuccos and frescoes by Giovanni da Udine, Federico Zuccaro and Francesco Salviati. Because of its collection of antiquities, the palazzo was one of the principal sights for any 16th-century tourist; Aspetti was the house sculptor and restorer of the collection (a project in ...

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Isabel Mateo Gómez

(b ?Toledo; d 1595).

Spanish painter, miniaturist, sculptor, architect and writer. He belongs to the Toledan school of the second half of the 16th century. The son of the painter Lorenzo de Ávila, he developed a Mannerist style that is smooth and delicate and derives from his father’s and from that of Juan Correa de Vivar and of Francisco Comontes (d 1565). He worked as painter to Toledo Cathedral from 1565 to 1581 and was painter (Pintor del Rey) to Philip II from 1583. He acted frequently as a valuer for the work of other artists.

Between 1563 and 1564, in collaboration with Luis de Velasco, Hernando de Ávila painted the retable of the church of Miraflores (Madrid Province) with the Life of Christ and the Life of the Virgin (untraced); these are probably among his earliest works. He was commissioned to paint the retables of St John the Baptist and the ...

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(b Cefalù, Sicily, c. 1572; d Naples, Dec 12, 1645).

Sicilian painter and sculptor. He was probably trained in Sicily, yet he is recorded in Naples from 1594, and his artistic roots are Neapolitan. The painting of the Presentation in the Temple (1599; Naples, S Maria la Nova) is his earliest datable work. It demonstrates that Azzolino was already aware of trends in late 16th-century Neapolitan painting and that he knew the art of Belisario Corenzio, Fabrizio Santafede and Luigi Rodriguez (fl 1594–1606). He took his lead at first from Corenzio and was, like him, an expert fresco painter. In 1599 Azzolino was commissioned to execute the decoration (untraced) for the church of the Spirito Santo, Naples. In the canvases and frescoes that he painted between 1606 and 1610 for the church of Gesù e Maria, Naples, and in the earlier Pentecost for the church of S Francesco at Caiazzo (in situ; his only signed work) it is possible to discern the influences of both Corenzio and Santafede. An awareness of the new clarity and naturalism of the Florentine reformers Lodovico Cigoli, Agostino Ciampelli and Domenico Passignano had spread in Naples through Santafede, whose role in the development of Azzolino’s style was fundamental. Both artists subsequently remained faithful to the devotional art of the Counter-Reformation, although they later demonstrated an awareness of the innovative work of Caravaggio. Azzolino countered both the excessive intellectual subtleties of Mannerism and the experimental naturalism of Caravaggio with serene and familiar renderings of sacred stories such as the ...

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Bruno Tollon

(b Arras, 1500; d Toulouse, 1557).

French sculptor, mason and architect . He was the dominant sculptor and architect of 16th-century Toulouse and deserves to be placed after Pierre Lescot and Philibert de L’Orme (both primarily active in the Ile de France) among the creators of the French classical style in architecture. His training as a sculptor probably took place in Arras, then a Spanish province in direct contact with Italy, and he probably also studied in Italy before arriving in Toulouse c. 1532. The exceptional quality of his work won him an immediate admiration that lasted into posterity. His origins and training were rapidly surrounded with legends, repeated by Dupuy du Grès in his Traité de peinture (1699), in which Bachelier is described as a pupil of Michelangelo. In the 19th century all important Renaissance monuments between Pau and Cahors were unhesitatingly ascribed to him.

Bachelier’s first employment was as a sculptor, and such works as his carved stone retables and altars in the churches of Toulouse, including the cathedral of St Etienne (...

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Philippe Rouillard

French family of sculptors. Jacques Bachot (fl 1493–1526), Marc Bachot (fl 1517–40) and Yvon Bachot (fl 1524–34) originated in Troyes, one of the main centres of sculptural production in France in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance (see Troyes, §2). Their precise relationships have not been established. Jacques Bachot seems to have been one of the last great Gothic sculptors of the Champagne region, to judge from the scale of his earnings and the extent of his activities, although none of his work is known to survive. He was in Troyes in 1493 as one of the sculptors of the Belle Croix (1484–97; destr. 1790s), a bronze monumental crucifix with numerous figures around the base. He is subsequently recorded as being in charge of the carving of marble and the erection of tombs ordered by Henri de Lorraine, Bishop of Metz, for St Laurent, Joinville (Haute-Marne). The chief parts of this ensemble, executed between ...

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Bambaia  

Maria Teresa Fiorio

[Busti, Agostino]

(b ?Busto Arsizio, c. 1483; d Milan, June 11, 1548).

Italian sculptor. The earliest documentary information on the artist, an application by Agostino Busti and his brother Polidoro for employment as sculptors in the workshop of Milan Cathedral, dates from 1512, when he was about 30. The reply, though it refers to him as a master, shows that Agostino was not yet well known in Milan, for he was asked to produce a statue to show his skill. The application describes the brothers as ‘of Busto’, which suggests that they came from Busto Arsizio in Varese. According to Vasari, Agostino was known by the nickname Bambaia (under which name he generally appears in the literature). It is likely that Agostino began his training with Benedetto Briosco, as Vasari referred to his work for the Certoso di Pavia, where Briosco worked for years. Vasari also mentioned that he was ‘greatly helped’ by Bernardo Zenale.

The first work generally attributed to Bambaia is the funeral monument to the Milanese poet ...

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Charles Avery

[Brandini, Bartolomeo]

(b Gaiole in Chianti, Oct 17, 1493; d Florence, Feb 7, 1560).

Italian sculptor, painter and draughtsman . He was the son of Michelagnolo di Viviano (1459–1528), a prominent Florentine goldsmith who was in the good graces of the Medici and who taught Cellini and Raffaello da Montelupo. Baccio remained loyal to the Medici, despite their being in exile from 1494 to 1513, and this led to a flow of commissions after the elections to the papacy of Leo X (Giovanni de’ Medici) in 1513 and of Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici) a decade later; after Cosimo de’ Medici became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1537, these increased still further. This political stance made him unpopular with most Florentines, including Michelangelo, who were Republican at heart, and this lay at the root of much of the adverse criticism—not always justified—that greeted Bandinelli’s statues.

Baccio seems to have had an ambitious and impatient temperament, which led to frequent changes of master and of direction when he was learning his art. Until ...