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Article

Robin A. Branstator

[Morten]

(d Copenhagen, 1553).

Danish sculptor and architect. His sculptural work shows a precocious awareness of early Renaissance art, suggesting that he trained in the workshop of Claus Berg in Odense. He first served Christian II, King of Denmark (reg 1512–23), as architect and sculptor and had settled in Copenhagen by 1523. His tombstone sculptures equal or surpass his architectural successes. The first in his series of gravestone reliefs was of Elisabeth of Habsburg (c. 1523; Copenhagen, Nmus.), Christian II’s queen, a pendant to an earlier representation of King John (1503; Copenhagen, Nmus.), sculpted by Adam van Düren. The limestone high relief had a conventional Gothic framework but hinted at Bussaert’s mature work in the more naturalistic folds of Elisabeth’s gown. After Christian II fled to the Netherlands in 1523, Bussaert elected to remain in Copenhagen in the employ of the newly crowned Frederick I (reg 1523–34). Frederick rewarded Bussaert well, naming him master builder in ...

Article

Jutland  

Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (reg 1019–35), Jutland acquired a stable diocesan system (1060) that enabled a systematic collection of tithes and the growth of religious institutions between 1050 and 1250. During this period, agricultural practices changed as manor houses and landed estates were established, producing wealth for the ruling families. Under Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Knut VI (reg 1182–1202), Jutland witnessed a great building activity; on Jutland more than 700 stone churches were constructed, some replacing earlier wooden churches, each needing liturgical furnishings. Workshops, such as that of the renowned sculptor Horder and many others, were actively engaged in carving stone baptismal fonts (e.g. Malt, Skodborg, Ut, Stenild), capitals, reliefs (Vestervig, Aalborg) and tympana (Gjøl, Ørsted, Stjaer, Skibet), wooden cult figures, Jutland’s golden altars (Lisbjerg, Sahl, Stadil, Tamdrup) and wall paintings. Evidence of the earliest wall paintings in Jutland, ...

Article

Ludovico Borgo and Margot Borgo

[Paolo di Bernardino d’Antonio]

(b Pistoia ?1490; d Pistoia, Aug 3, 1547).

Italian sculptor, painter and draughtsman. He was the son of Bernardino del Signoraccio (Bernardino d’Antonio; 1460–after 1532), a minor Pistoian painter, and is first recorded in 1513 as a monk of the Dominican convent of S Marco in Florence. In that year he made two clay statues of St Dominic and St Mary Magdalene (both untraced) that in 1516 were placed in S Maria Maddalena in Pian di Mugnone.

His first documented painting is a fresco of the Crucifixion (1516; Siena, Santo Spirito), done with the assistance of Fra Agostino, showing a type of composition invented by Fra Bartolommeo for miniaturized painting. The figure of Christ, however, is derived from Albertinelli’s Crucifixion (Florence, Certosa del Galluzzo (also known as di Val d’Ema)). During these years Fra Paolino must have worked as an assistant to Fra Bartolommeo, but his precise contributions remain difficult to isolate. He was obviously admired within S Marco, however, since, on Fra ...

Article

Pomposa  

Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...

Article

Géza Jászai

[Jodocus] [Pelsers, Joest]

(b Vreden, c. 1473–4; d Marienburg, nr Dülmen, Dec 16, 1540).

German sculptor. In 1493 he entered the Carthusian monastery of Marienburg, becoming procurator in 1506 and prior in 1531. He presumably learnt his skills in the pottery town of Vreden, Westphalia. He produced devotional pictures and house altars as low reliefs completely in the tradition of the Utrecht ‘picture bakers’ or ‘picture makers’ using white pipeclay and fired hollow moulds ( see Netherlands, Kingdom of the §VII 1. ). He signed most of his works Judocus Vredis or F[rater] Judocus Vredis Cartus[iensis]. His subject-matter was strictly limited: the Virgin as the Queen of Heaven, the Holy Trinity, the Annunciation, the Crucifixion, the virgin martyrs—SS Catherine of Alexandria, Barbara, Margaret, and Dorothy—and also SS Anne and Mary Magdalene. He mainly worked from drawings by Master E.S. and Israhel van Meckenem (ii), elaborately decorating the figures formed in the mould and modelling them while the clay was soft using stencils, small metal stamps, and punches. He embellished the hems of robes and headgear and added attributes, inscriptions, flowers, leaves, and fruit. Most of his surviving work is in the ...