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Phyllis Pray Bober

(b Bologna, 1474–5; d Bologna, Nov 19, 1552).

Italian painter, sculptor, illuminator, printmaker and draughtsman . He was born into a family of painters, and his youthful facility reportedly astonished his contemporaries. His work developed in the Emilian–Ferrarese tradition of Ercole de’ Roberti, Lorenzo Costa the elder and, above all, Francesco Francia. Until the re-evaluation by Longhi, critical assessment of Amico’s oeuvre was over-reliant on literary sources, especially Vasari’s unsympathetic account of an eccentric, half-insane master working so rapidly with both hands (the ‘chiaro’ in one, the ‘scuro’ in the other) that he was able to finish decorating an entire house façade in one day.

Longhi presented Amico as a creative master whose expressive intensity and sensitive use of colour rescued Bolognese painting of the early 16th century from sterile echoes of Raphael. Today Aspertini is viewed as an influential precursor of Mannerism, and his highly individual study of antiquity has been brought to the fore by the publication of his sketchbooks. Amico was not a mere imitator of ancient artists, but their imaginative rival, whether in his grotesques derived from the decorations of Nero’s Domus Aurea in Rome (e.g. the Parma sketchbook and the borders of his ...


Isabel Mateo Gómez

(b ?Toledo; d 1595).

Spanish painter, miniaturist, sculptor, architect and writer. He belongs to the Toledan school of the second half of the 16th century. The son of the painter Lorenzo de Ávila, he developed a Mannerist style that is smooth and delicate and derives from his father’s and from that of Juan Correa de Vivar and of Francisco Comontes (d 1565). He worked as painter to Toledo Cathedral from 1565 to 1581 and was painter (Pintor del Rey) to Philip II from 1583. He acted frequently as a valuer for the work of other artists.

Between 1563 and 1564, in collaboration with Luis de Velasco, Hernando de Ávila painted the retable of the church of Miraflores (Madrid Province) with the Life of Christ and the Life of the Virgin (untraced); these are probably among his earliest works. He was commissioned to paint the retables of St John the Baptist and the ...


(b Cefalù, Sicily, c. 1572; d Naples, Dec 12, 1645).

Sicilian painter and sculptor. He was probably trained in Sicily, yet he is recorded in Naples from 1594, and his artistic roots are Neapolitan. The painting of the Presentation in the Temple (1599; Naples, S Maria la Nova) is his earliest datable work. It demonstrates that Azzolino was already aware of trends in late 16th-century Neapolitan painting and that he knew the art of Belisario Corenzio, Fabrizio Santafede and Luigi Rodriguez (fl 1594–1606). He took his lead at first from Corenzio and was, like him, an expert fresco painter. In 1599 Azzolino was commissioned to execute the decoration (untraced) for the church of the Spirito Santo, Naples. In the canvases and frescoes that he painted between 1606 and 1610 for the church of Gesù e Maria, Naples, and in the earlier Pentecost for the church of S Francesco at Caiazzo (in situ; his only signed work) it is possible to discern the influences of both Corenzio and Santafede. An awareness of the new clarity and naturalism of the Florentine reformers Lodovico Cigoli, Agostino Ciampelli and Domenico Passignano had spread in Naples through Santafede, whose role in the development of Azzolino’s style was fundamental. Both artists subsequently remained faithful to the devotional art of the Counter-Reformation, although they later demonstrated an awareness of the innovative work of Caravaggio. Azzolino countered both the excessive intellectual subtleties of Mannerism and the experimental naturalism of Caravaggio with serene and familiar renderings of sacred stories such as the ...


Fiorella Sricchia Santoro

(di Giacomo di Pace)

(b Cortine in Valdibiana Montaperti, 1484; d Siena, between Jan and May 1551).

Italian painter, sculptor, draughtsman, printmaker and illuminator. He was one of the protagonists, perhaps even the most precocious, of Tuscan Mannerism, which he practised with a strong sense of his Sienese artistic background but at the same time with an awareness of contemporary developments in Florence and Rome. He responded to the new demand for feeling and fantasy while retaining the formal language of the early 16th century. None of Beccafumi’s works is signed or dated, but his highly personal maniera has facilitated almost unanimous agreement regarding the definition of his corpus and the principal areas of influence on it. However, some questions concerning the circumstances of his early career and the choices available to him remain unanswered. The more extreme forms of Beccafumi’s reckless experimentation underwent a critical reappraisal only in the later 20th century.

The primary sources of information concerning Beccafumi are Vasari’s biography (1568) and archival findings, mostly 19th century, relating to the artist. Vasari, although a direct acquaintance of Beccafumi in his last years and in a position to gather information from mutual friends, was, predictably, unreliable in regard to his early career. According to Vasari, Mecherino, the son of a poor farmer named Giacomo di Pace, became the protégé of ...


J. J. Martín González

(b ?Baeza, c. 1520; d ?Madrid, Feb 1568).

Spanish painter and sculptor, also active in Italy. He was a major figure in Spanish art during the third quarter of the 16th century; he went to Italy around 1545 and, although there is no evidence that he collaborated with Michelangelo, he undoubtedly studied his works, and he was responsible for introducing into Spain Michelangelo’s painting style as seen in the Last Judgement (Rome, Vatican, Sistine Chapel) and in the Pauline Chapel in the Vatican Palace, Rome. There are two drawings by Becerra (Madrid, Bib. N. and Prado) of the Last Judgement executed between his marriage in Rome on 15 July 1556 and his return to Valladolid in 1558. According to Juan de Arfe, Becerra introduced to Spain ‘figures more fleshy than those of Berruguete’, and Francisco Pacheco wrote that he followed Michelangelo in painting ‘figures that are larger and fuller’. Becerra was also a follower of Vasari, although his style was rather more restrained and with a distinctive Spanish flavour (Post). According to ...


(b Modena, c. 1490; d London, ?Feb 15, 1569).

Italian stuccoist, sculptor, painter and costume designer, active in France and England. He worked in France as a painter (1515–22), probably under Jean Perréal and Jean Bourdichon, then in Mantua, possibly under Giulio Romano, possibly calling himself ‘da Milano’. By 1532 he was at Fontainebleau and in 1533 was engaged with Francesco Primaticcio on the stuccoes and painting of the Chambre du Roi and was one of the highest paid of his collaborators. He may also have worked on the Galerie François I. He was described in 1534 as sculpteur et faiseur de masques and in 1535 made masquerade costumes for the wedding of the Comte de Saint-Pol. He was later involved in a fraud and by August 1537 was in England, where he settled. By 1540 Bellin was employed at Whitehall Palace, probably on making stucco chimneypieces, including that in the privy chamber. The following year he and his company of six were working on the slate carvings at ...


Paul Huvenne


(b ?Poperinghe, 1488; d Bruges, bur March 4, 1581).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, designer, architect, civil engineer, cartographer and engraver. He is said to have trained as a bricklayer, and the trowel he used to add as his housemark next to his monogram lab testifies to this and to his pretensions as an architectural designer. In 1519 he was registered as a master painter in the Bruges Guild of St Luke, where he chose as his speciality painting on canvas. The following year he collaborated with the little-known painter Willem Cornu in designing and executing 12 scenes for the Triumphal Entry of Emperor Charles V into Bruges. From then onwards Blondeel received regular commissions, mainly as a designer and organizer. Records of legal actions show that he was sometimes late with commissions; he took seven years to execute a Last Judgement ordered in 1540 for the council chamber at Blankenberge, and in 1545 the Guild of St Luke summoned him for his failure to supply their guild banner on time. Blondeel was married to Kathelyne, sister of the wood-carver ...


Carl Van de Velde and Elisabeth Gurock

[Paledaen; Palidamus; Paludanus]

Flemish family of artists. The painter Jan van den Broeck (d 1551 or after) of Mechelen had three sons who became artists. All three moved to Antwerp, where (1) Willem van den Broeck was active as a sculptor, as was his son Raphael van den Broeck (fl 1585–99). Willem’s two brothers (2) Crispin van den Broeck and (3) Hendrik van den Broeck were probably both trained as painters by their father and then, according to Guicciardini, by Frans Floris in Antwerp. Hendrik’s career was subsequently spent entirely in Italy, while Crispin, except for a short visit to Middelburg in 1564, remained in Antwerp, where he also designed and made prints. He taught engraving to his daughter Barbara van den Broeck (b c. 1558–60), who was also active as an engraver in Antwerp.

L. Guicciardini: Descrittione di… tutti i Paesi Bassi (1567), p. 99

Elisabeth Gurock...


M. Newcome

Italian family of artists. Taddeo Carlone (1543–1615) and his brother Giuseppe Carlone were, like their father Giovanni Carlone, sculptors. Born in Rovio (Lombardy), they moved to Genoa c. 1560. Another member of the family was Pietro Carlone, who with his son Francesco Carlone was a bronze-caster. Taddeo’s sons (1) Giovanni Carlone and (2) Giovanni Battista Carlone became painters, probably working together in Genoa and Milan and perhaps in Rome and Florence before 1630. The Carlone brothers’ sculptural heritage and their education in Rome and Florence differed from that of their Genoese contemporaries who had studied under Giovanni Battista Paggi, and together with Domenico Fiasella they stimulated a revival of fresco decoration in Genoa. Frescoes painted in the 1620s by the Carlone brothers and Fiasella and by Lazzaro Tavarone, Andrea Ansaldo and Bernardo Castello are close in composition, colour, figures and subject-matter. (2) Giovanni Battista Carlone’s studio produced a vast quantity of brilliantly coloured frescoes, which were highly proficient and popular; these are best seen on the nave vaults of the large Genoese churches, S Ambrogio and S Siro. He relied on family members, and among his 24 children were ...


(fl 1486–1523).

Italian illuminator, painter and sculptor. He was principally active as an illuminator and ran a workshop of considerable repute in Bologna. In 1486 he collaborated with Martino da Modena (fl 1477–89) on the decoration of choir-books for S Petronio, Bologna, and this contact with Martino undoubtedly influenced his style. In 1509 and 1511 and then in 1522 and 1523 he and his collaborators received payments for the illumination of a number of choir-books for the same church (Bologna, Mus. S Petronio).

Cavalletto’s only surviving signed and dated work is a full-page miniature of the Coronation of the Virgin (1523; Bologna, Mus. Civ. Med.), from the statute book of the guild of merchants and drapers of Bologna. The miniature, with the Virgin enthroned on a podium in a columned room, is strikingly monumental in its conception. Here, as in the best of Cavalletto’s work as an illuminator, the marked influence of the Ferrara school fused with the traditional style of Bologna is apparent. Also attributed to Cavalletto are the frontispiece miniature of the statute book of the College of Jurists of Bologna representing the ...


Andrea Bayer

(b Crema, doc. from 1470; d Crema, c. 1544).

Italian painter and sculptor. Although living in Milan in 1487, he was primarily active in Brescia and Crema, as well as smaller centres in the vicinity, arriving in the former city around 1490. He was influenced by Vincenzo Foppa, with whom Vasari and Lomazzo confused him. In 1493 he was commissioned to paint frescoes (destr.) depicting the Life of the Virgin in the presbytery of the Old Cathedral, Brescia. Extant works from those years include the Road to Calvary and the Deposition (1490; Travagliato, SS Pietro e Paolo) and a polyptych depicting St Nicholas of Tolentino (1495; Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo) painted for S Barnaba, Brescia. Recent restoration has revealed that the left panel of St Sebastian was painted and signed by an artist who worked in the style of Leonardo and was active in Milan, Francesco Galli, called Francesco Napoletano (d 1501). Not only do these works show strong ties with Foppa and such Milanese artists as Bernardo Zenale but they also contain clear references both to German engravings (e.g. Martin Schongauer’s ...


(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...


Henri Zerner

French family of painters, draughtsmen and designers. From the 17th century, when André Félibien (in his Entretiens) wrote the first important critical appraisal of Jean Cousin, until the 20th century, historians had fused two artists, father and son, into one personality that had become almost entirely mythical, with a career that spanned virtually the entire 16th century. The archival researches of Roy demonstrated that there had been an elder Jean Cousin, born probably no earlier than 1490 and surely not much after 1505, who died in 1560 or possibly 1561, and a younger Jean Cousin, his son, also an artist, who was a student at the University of Paris in 1542 and died around 1595. A seemingly unrelated sculptor of the same name was active in Paris in the 1540s but was dead by 1549. No work by him has been identified, but he was commissioned in 1541 to execute six statues for the cloisters of the convent of the Célestins in Paris. Although few paintings can be securely attributed to (1) Jean Cousin (i), he was a major figure in the classicizing trend of French art in the 1540s and 1550s. (2) Jean Cousin (ii) is a more shadowy figure, who carried on his father’s workshop and style into the second half of the 16th century....



[il giovane]

(b Treviso, c. 1498; d Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1544).

Italian painter, draughtsman, sculptor and military engineer. He is first documented in 1523 in Bologna but had probably arrived there c. 1520. Between 1515 and 1520 he produced an engraving (initialled) of Susanna and the Elders and a series of drawings that were engraved by Francesco de Nanto, depicting scenes from the Life of Christ. A series of paintings, some of them initialled, were attributed to him by Coletti and this attribution is now generally accepted. The group includes two small canvases (transferred from panels that were initialled hirtv) representing Isaac Blessing Jacob and Hagar and the Angel (both Rouen, Mus. B.-A.), the monogrammed Sleeping Venus (c. 1520–29; Rome, Gal. Borghese), which contains an echo of Marcantonio Raimondi’s so-called Dream of Raphael (b. 274, 359), the initialled Female Nude (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), derived from a drawing by Raphael (London, BM) that was engraved by Raimondi (b...


Paul Barolsky

[Ricciarelli, Daniele]

(b Volterra, 1509; d Rome, April 4, 1566).

Italian painter, stuccoist and sculptor. Much of the fascination of his career resides in the development of his style from provincial origins to a highly sophisticated manner, combining the most accomplished elements of the art of Michelangelo, Raphael and their Mannerist followers in a distinctive and highly original way. He provided an influential model for numerous later artists in Rome.

The only work to survive from Daniele’s early career is a fresco, a political allegory of Justice, painted shortly after 1530 for the Palazzo dei Priori in Volterra (now detached, Volterra, Pin. Com.). It reflects the pervasive influence of Sodoma, with whom he is presumed to have studied in Siena. Badly damaged and overpainted, it is a generally clumsy work, demonstrating an inadequate grasp of foreshortening; it exhibits the difficultà of manner noted by Vasari.

It is not known exactly when Daniele travelled to Rome, but it is now generally assumed that his initial work there on the ...


Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel



Alice T. Friedman

Term used to describe British art and architecture produced during the reign (1558–1603) of Elizabeth I. The dominant characteristics in all media are flatness and linearity; in representational art, surface decoration, high colour and complex silhouettes are preferred over plastic form or naturalistic three-dimensional depiction. There is evidence that Nicholas Hilliard, Elizabeth I’s favoured portrait miniaturist, and such other court painters as George Gower, Marcus Gheerhaerts (ii) and Isaac Oliver consciously suppressed their knowledge of contemporary Italian and Flemish naturalism to produce their own distinctive iconic portraits. As for sculpture, the Dutch and Flemish masons who visited or settled in England, such as Garat Johnson (i) and Richard Stevens, tended to dominate. Their recumbent effigies carved for alabaster funerary monuments (often richly coloured) were conventional in design and modelling, while ornamental motifs owed much to the influence of Mannerist Flemish pattern books, such as those by Hans Vredeman de Vries. Among the decorative arts, embroidery in particular was highly prized and widely practised to an exemplary standard in later 16th-century England: the realistic portrayal of fruits and flowers, boldly coloured and within complex formed designs, epitomizes the Elizabethan style in textiles....


Adam White

(b ?1570 or earlier; fl c. 1589–1623).

English sculptor and painter. He was born (probably at Epiphany) into a family of Herefordshire gentry, the fourteenth and youngest child of William Evesham of Wellington. He is said to have been a pupil of the Southwark sculptor Richard Stevens, but the source of this information is unreliable. His earliest recorded work is an engraved sun-dial (1589; Hereford, City Mus. & A.G.); during the 1590s he made at least two minor memorial tablets. In 1591 he was apparently in London, and by 1600 he had moved to Paris, where he remained until at least 1615. The extensive documentation of his time abroad indicates that he was an artist of considerable versatility (see Jurgens, 1960). In 1601 he subcontracted the metal-casting of a model of Neptune on three seahorses. Five years later he undertook to make the black marble tomb slab of the Archbishop of Sens (untraced), to be installed in the cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, and in ...


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...