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[Florentin, Dominique ; Riconucci, Domenico]

(b ?Florence, c. 1506; d Paris, 1565).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist, painter, engraver and mosaicist, active in France . He is mentioned for the first time between 1537 and 1540 in the accounts of the château of Fontainebleau, working on mosaics with Jean Picard (Jean Le Roux, fl mid-16th century). Barbiere rose to prominence rapidly in the team of artists assembled by Francesco Primaticcio on the royal works at the château and worked also at Troyes, where he lived for periods during his career. It is not clear, however, if he went to Troyes as a young man and established his profession there before going on to Fontainebleau with other sculptors from Troyes, such as the Julyot family (fl 16th century) and Nicolas Cordonnier, or whether he went initially to Fontainebleau in the footsteps of his fellow Florentines Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio and then went on to Troyes, a long-established centre of sculpture production, with craftsmen he had met at Fontainebleau (...


(b Modena, c. 1490; d London, ?Feb 15, 1569).

Italian stuccoist, sculptor, painter and costume designer, active in France and England. He worked in France as a painter (1515–22), probably under Jean Perréal and Jean Bourdichon, then in Mantua, possibly under Giulio Romano, possibly calling himself ‘da Milano’. By 1532 he was at Fontainebleau and in 1533 was engaged with Francesco Primaticcio on the stuccoes and painting of the Chambre du Roi and was one of the highest paid of his collaborators. He may also have worked on the Galerie François I. He was described in 1534 as sculpteur et faiseur de masques and in 1535 made masquerade costumes for the wedding of the Comte de Saint-Pol. He was later involved in a fraud and by August 1537 was in England, where he settled. By 1540 Bellin was employed at Whitehall Palace, probably on making stucco chimneypieces, including that in the privy chamber. The following year he and his company of six were working on the slate carvings at ...


Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b c. 1570; d Paris, March 21, 1637).

French sculptor. His father Guillaume Boudin (fl 1567–1614) specialized in carved panelling and furniture decorated in the antique taste. Thomas was apprenticed to Mathieu Jacquet in 1584 and remained with his workshop until 1595. Though he bore the title Sculpteur du Roi from 1606, his court works, including a chimney-piece (wood, 1606) for the Chambre du Roi at the Louvre, Paris, a bas-relief (bronze; destr.) for the pedestal of Pietro Tacca’s equestrian statue of Henry IV erected on the Pont Neuf in 1635, and the chimney-pieces for the Throne Room of the Hôtel de Ville, Paris (1617; destr.), and for the château of Chilly (1632; destr.) are less significant than his religious oeuvre. This includes seven high-reliefs (stone, 1610–12; in situ) around the choir of Chartres Cathedral. Their traditional, vigorously frontal composition, with the figures modelled almost in the round so that they appear to be free-standing against a plain background, is combined with a late Mannerist complication of drapery and hairstyle. Other sculptural decorations, such as the high altar of St Germain-l’Auxerrois (...


Darius Sikorski

(b Urbino, c. 1524–5; d Urbino, Sept 20, 1575).

Italian stuccoist and sculptor. He enjoyed extensive patronage from the court of Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, for whom he modelled fireplaces and entire ceilings representing allegories of princely prerogative and aristocratic supremacy. This practice, unusual in Italy (where stucco was generally a decorative adjunct to fresco), may be partly explained by the fact that Guidobaldo did not retain a permanent court painter.

Between 1538 and 1541 Brandani was apprenticed in Urbino to Giovanni Maria di Casteldurante, a maiolica artist, but his earliest known work (c. 1551) is the luxuriant and overcrowded stucco ceiling, modelled with five relief scenes from the Life of St Peter, in the chapel of the Palazzo Corte Rossa, Fossombrone, near Urbino, for Cardinal Giulio della Rovere (1533–78). In 1552–3 Brandani made contributions to the stucco decoration at the Villa Giulia, Rome, modelling friezes, small roundels and grotesques in the rooms left and right of the entrance....



Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

[It.: ‘chest’]

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate cassoni, painted and often combined with pastiglia decoration, were usually commissioned in pairs when a house was renovated for a newly married couple and were ordered, together with other furnishings, by the groom. Florence was the main centre of production, though cassoni were also produced in Siena and occasionally in the Veneto and elsewhere.

The earliest cassoni were simple structures with rounded lids, probably painted in solid colours, such as the red cassone in Giotto’s Annunciation to St Anne (c. 1305; Padua, Arena Chapel). The earliest known chests with painted designs are all from the same shop (e.g. Florence, Pal. Davanzati, inv. mob. 162). Like the much more numerous contemporary chests with gilded low-relief in pastiglia (...


Kathryn A. Charles

[Silvio da Fiesole; Silvio di fu Giovanni di Neri de’ Ceparelli]

(b Poggibonsi, c. 1495; d Milan, after 1547).

Italian sculptor and stuccoist. Noted for his decorative work, trophies, masks and stucco ornaments, he was trained in the style of Michelangelo by Andrea Ferrucci in Florence. His first independent commission, the tomb of Raffaelle Maffei (il Volterrano) in S Lino at Volterra (1522), was arranged by Ferrucci. He usually worked with other artists, including his brother Vincenzo (b c. 1505). In 1524 Ferrucci was commissioned to execute the monument to Antonio Strozzi in S Maria Novella, Florence, for which Cosini carved a relief of the Virgin and Child. His execution of the face recalls Ferrucci’s technique, derived from Leonardo da Vinci. Also in this period Cosini executed the monument to Ruggero Minerbetti for the same church, in which Michelangelo’s influence is especially apparent. Cosini’s approach was elegant as well as humorous, and his skill as a carver enabled him to give marble a tender, flesh-like quality. His ability was recognized by ...


Paul Barolsky

[Ricciarelli, Daniele]

(b Volterra, 1509; d Rome, April 4, 1566).

Italian painter, stuccoist and sculptor. Much of the fascination of his career resides in the development of his style from provincial origins to a highly sophisticated manner, combining the most accomplished elements of the art of Michelangelo, Raphael and their Mannerist followers in a distinctive and highly original way. He provided an influential model for numerous later artists in Rome.

The only work to survive from Daniele’s early career is a fresco, a political allegory of Justice, painted shortly after 1530 for the Palazzo dei Priori in Volterra (now detached, Volterra, Pin. Com.). It reflects the pervasive influence of Sodoma, with whom he is presumed to have studied in Siena. Badly damaged and overpainted, it is a generally clumsy work, demonstrating an inadequate grasp of foreshortening; it exhibits the difficultà of manner noted by Vasari.

It is not known exactly when Daniele travelled to Rome, but it is now generally assumed that his initial work there on the ...


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...


Henri Zerner

[Fr. Ecole de Fontainebleau]

Term that encompasses work in a wide variety of media, including painting, sculpture, stuccowork and printmaking, produced from the 1530s to the first decade of the 17th century in France (e.g. The Nymph of Fontainebleau). It evokes an unreal and poetic world of elegant, elongated figures, often in mythological settings, as well as incorporating rich, intricate ornamentation with a characteristic type of strapwork. The phrase was first used by Adam von Bartsch in Le Peintre-graveur (21 vols, Vienna, 1803–21), referring to a group of etchings and engravings, some of which were undoubtedly made at Fontainebleau in France (see Fontainebleau, §1). More generally, it designates the art made to decorate the château of Fontainebleau, built from 1528 by Francis I and his successors (see Valois, House of family, §14), and by extension it covers all works that reflect the art of Fontainebleau. The principal artists of the school were ...


Elisabeth Gurock

(b before 1541; d before 1597).

German cabinetmaker and wood-carver. Although in the high quality of his craftsmanship he was an important representative of South German cabinetmaking and is thought to have produced an extensive oeuvre in Upper Swabia and Switzerland, little evidence of it has survived. Probably in collaboration with the Augsburg cabinetmaker Hans Kels (fl 1537–65/6) and commissioned by the monastery of Ottobeuren, he produced an organ case and choir-stalls with rich inlaid ornamentation; their remains were later incorporated into a sacristy cupboard. Again collaborating with Kels, in 1583–5 he produced five portals (four in situ; one, Stuttgart, Württemberg. Landesmus.), the architectural structure of which was accentuated by lavish figural and ornamental carving and supplemented by inlays and reliefs, together with a coffered ceiling, for the Benedictine abbey at Ochsenhausen. Through his extensive use of contemporary pattern books while designing, Heidelberger combined delicate decorative elements from the early Renaissance with the more robust forms of the later 16th century....


Bruce Boucher

(b Padua, c. 1511–12; d Padua, 1552).

Italian stuccoist and sculptor. He probably trained as a founder under his father, Guido Minio (fl 1511–16), called Lizzaro, and later alternated this trade with his work as a sculptor. His first documented activity is as a stuccoist in 1533, employed on the vault of the chapel of S Antonio in Il Santo, Padua, under the architect Giovanni Maria Falconetto and alongside two members of Jacopo Sansovino’s circle, Silvio Cosini and Danese Cattaneo. In 1535–6 Minio executed his first independent work, the stucco altar (now Padua, Mus. Civ.) for the Confraternity of S Rocco in Padua. Large and ungainly, this altar has the crude vigour often associated with provincial workmanship; its female saints show, nonetheless, the influence of Sansovino’s style, while the deployment of the sculptures in general is indebted to arrangements at Sansovino’s Loggetta, Venice.

Minio began working for Sansovino in 1536 at Venice, where he made stucco decorations for the atrium of S Marco and helped cast Sansovino’s first bronze reliefs for the choir. Minio was clearly valued by Sansovino for his skill as a stuccoist and founder, while receiving from Sansovino a new formal language for his own work. This influence can be seen in all of Minio’s subsequent figural designs, especially in the plasterwork of the Odeo Cornaro, built in Padua for ...


Philippe Rouillard

[Regnauldin, Laurent]

(fl 1534; d between 7 Feb and June 28, 1567).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and painter, active in France. He was a pupil of Giovanni Francesco Rustici, whom he accompanied to France, and he is usually identified as the ‘Laurent Regnauldin’ recorded from 1534 as a Florentine painter at the château of Fontainebleau. His actual role seems to have been that of a sculptor and stucco modeller in the team of artists directed by Francesco Primaticcio that was responsible for the decoration of the Chambre du Roi (1535; destr.), the Chambre de la Reine (1535–6; destr. except for the chimney-piece) and the room above the Porte Dorée (destr.)

According to Vasari, Naldini was in Florence in 1540. Between 1540 and 1550 he was employed regularly by the French Crown as a restorer of antique sculpture and of the coral carvings in the Cabinet du Roi. From 1542 he collaborated with Simon Le Roy (fl from 1534) on carved decoration for the rood screen (destr. ...


Leo de Ren

(b Ypres, c. 1545; d Mainz, c. 1600).

Flemish sculptor, stuccoist and ornament-maker, active in Germany. He may have received his early training in the studio of his uncles Georges Robyn and Johann II Robyn. He emigrated to Germany c. 1570. His oldest known work is the family tomb of Hendrik von Wiltberg (d 1531; sandstone, 1571; Bonn, Rhein. Landesmus.), originally in the church of Alken on the Moselle near Koblenz. Although he lived in Mainz, between 1577 and 1581 Osten worked chiefly for the Prince-bishop of Würzburg, Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn. In 1577–8 he sculpted for him the tomb of his brother, Sebastian Echter von Mespelbrunn (red sandstone, alabaster and stucco), in the cathedral of St Kilian in Würzburg. From 1578 to 1581 he made sculptures, reliefs and stucco ornament for the Julius hospital in Würzburg (destr.). It appears that in 1579 he had a large workshop. Osten was in Speyer in 1583: after protracted negotiations in ...


[Cesari, Carlo de; Pallago, Carlo; Palazzo, Carlo; Zeherin, Karl]

(b Florence, 1540; d Mantua, c. 1598).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and bronze-caster. His work was considered to be by two artists until Keutner (1991–2) proposed that Carlo di Cesari and Carlo Pallago were the same person. Most of his creative career was spent working at the courts of German princes; so far his name has been connected with surviving works only north of the Alps. He is documented as working, in his early years, as an assistant to Vasari and Giambologna at the Medici court in Florence. In 1565 he was accepted as a member at the Accademia del Disegno in Florence, continuing to pay his subscription until 1568. From 1569 to 1573 he worked for Hans Fugger in Augsburg (see Fugger family §(3)), making sculptural decorations in stucco and terracotta for his house (partly destr. 1944) as part of Friedrich Sustris’s decorative scheme. Twelve pairs of almost life-size terracotta satyrs have survived in the library, which remains intact. In ...


[Jacquiau; Jacquieu; Jacquin; Jacquio]

(fl c. 1527–70).

French sculptor, stuccoist and painter. He was incorrectly identified by Vasari as Paolo Ponzio Trebatti, a Tuscan sculptor. In documents he identified himself as a French sculptor: ‘Io Ponsio Francese’. He probably trained in Italy, perhaps in the circle of Francesco Primaticcio, and is named as a member of the Accademia di S Luca in Rome in 1527 and 1535. He probably returned to France in Primaticcio’s retinue, collaborating with him at Fontainebleau, and in 1552 on the grotto at the château of Meudon (destr.), near Paris, for the Duchesse d’Etampes. Returning to Rome around 1553, he was paid between 1553 and 1556 for stuccowork and frescoes in apartments at the Palazzo Sacchetti (formerly Palazzo Ricci). These decorations reflect the style of the Fontainebleau school and include grotesques and landscape frescoes in the apartments of Giacomo Marmitta, secretary to Cardinal Giovanni Ricci, and those in the Camera d’Audienza and Salotto Rosso. Stuccos in the Sala degli Stucchi were probably executed in collaboration with other artists....


Maria Helena Mendes Pinto

(fl Lisbon, 1548–55).

Spanish wood-carver and cabinetmaker, active in Portugal. He was the nephew of Vasco de la Zarza, a Castilian sculptor working in Ávila and Toledo during the first quarter of the 16th century, and Sarça is mentioned as the maker of furniture for the royal household. His best-known works are the Renaissance choir-stalls (1551) in the monastery of S Maria de Belém, Lisbon. These were designed by Diogo de Torralva, who also designed the high-relief tondos carved in the stonework of the lintels in the cloisters. The design of these tondos is repeated, together with grotesques and festoons, on the pilasters that divide the back of the stalls and support the projecting cornice. The great earthquake of 1755 resulted in the destruction of 24 seats of the stalls. The remaining 60 seats, in two U-shaped rows, constitute the earliest High Renaissance furniture in Portugal. Sarça’s last work for the monastery was the choir lectern made in ...


Thomas Martin

(b Trent, ?1525; d Venice, May 27, 1608).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and architect. He was a pupil and collaborator of Jacopo Sansovino and in the second half of the 16th century became one of the most important sculptors active in Venice. He was by temperament more of a modeller than a carver, and his stuccos, bronzes and terracottas are characterized by a verve and warmth that his work in marble tends to lack. His fluent, innovative and expressive style is in many ways opposed to Sansovino’s thoughtful, classicizing, High Renaissance idiom. Vittoria’s portrait sculpture is particularly fine. In his altars and funerary monuments he gradually evolved a dynamic relationship between sculptural and architectural elements that was more fully explored by artists of the Baroque. Comparatively little is known of Vittoria’s work as an architect. Although he is known to have been active also as a painter, none of his paintings has been identified. His workshop was clearly extensive. His principal collaborators were his nephews ...