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Article

Elisabeth Gurock

(b Strasbourg, 1573; d Brussels, 1645).

Flemish engraver, print publisher, sculptor and painter. His father, Jan van der Heyden (fl 1590; d before 1645), was a painter from Mechelen who left to settle in Strasbourg because of religious turmoil. Jacob trained in Brussels with Raphael Coxie (1540–1616), who was also from Mechelen; it seems probable, however, that Jacob continued to make his home in Strasbourg until 1635, subsequently moving to Brussels, where he worked until his death.

Van der Heyden’s extensive artistic activity extended over several genres. Among his documented paintings and sculptures were a painting of the Adoration of the Magi, listed in a Strasbourg catalogue of 1668, a Portrait of a Man with the Neck-chain of an Order (ex-Hollandt Col., Brunswick), and a gilt-bronze sculpture of Venus (all untraced). His principal work, however, lay in the domain of engraving and publishing. At the time when he founded his own publishing house, Strasbourg was a flourishing centre of graphic production. He published prints by numerous artists, including ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Mikhaylovich) [Chemiakin, Mihail]

(b Moscow, May 4, 1943).

Russian painter, graphic designer, sculptor and publisher. One of the most important representatives of the St Petersburg tradition of nonconformist art, he was born to a military family and spent his early years in the German Democratic Republic. His family returned to the USSR in 1957 and until 1961 he studied at the secondary school of art attached to the Il’ya Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Leningrad (now St Petersburg). His work combines the World of Art tradition with the surreal grotesque, portraying the world as a colourful carnival, intimidating in its terrifying metamorphoses, but drawing upon a wealth of artistic styles and psychologically striking tones. He was a master of the anarchic, bohemian life, and the poet Andrey Voznesensky (b 1933) described him as the ‘black prince of the Russian Underground’. After confrontations with the authorities, notably his participation in a group exhibition by underground artists of the ...