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Maria Helena Mendes Pinto

(fl c. 1766; d Lisbon, 1814).

Portuguese wood-carver and cabinetmaker. From 1766 he worked uninterruptedly on commissions from the royal family or under their patronage, even after the court had gone into exile in Brazil in 1807. His name is recorded from 1803 in the book of those receiving communion in Rua S Roque in the Encarnação parish where he, like many other wood-carvers, lived or had his workshop. He was licensed as a wood-carver of the Casa do Infantado and later of the royal palaces (1805). When he applied for the latter qualification, he made a list (possibly chronological) of his works prefaced by the statement: ‘As I show here, I have been serving the royal household for thirty-three years’. This key document in Ângelo’s own hand allows a fuller survey of his work than has previously been feasible (Correira Guedes, 1971). Ângelo worked principally in executing the designs of architects of the royal household or the Casa do Infantado, sometimes on his own with complete freedom and responsibility, as in the construction of the tower for fireworks on the occasion of the inauguration (...


Daniela Di Castro Moscati

(b Asti, Sept 6, 1745; d Turin, Dec 18, 1820).

Italian furniture-maker, sculptor and ornamentalist. He belonged to a family who owned a workshop of wood-carvers and organcase-makers in Asti. In 1773 he started working for the Savoy family and the following year gained admission to the Accademia di S Luca, Turin. In the accounts of the royal family he is recorded as having supplied numerous stools, chairs, armchairs, benches, sofas, screens, prie-dieux, beds and mirrors, as well as many ornamental panels and chests-of-drawers, for the Palazzo Reale in Turin and for royal residences at Moncalieri, Rivoli, Stupinigi, Venaria and Govone. His style is best expressed when, as part of a team of architects and assistants, he was commissioned to decorate and furnish entire rooms, such as the State Rooms of the Queen and King at Stupinigi. His work is characterized by its departure from the traditional school of Franco-Piedmontese inlay and marquetry cabinetmaking in favour of a more predominant use of carving. He adhered to Neo-classical forms in their most plastic, solid and vigorous, yet elegant, expression, in which the profusion of carvings always had a symbolic, allegorical and commemorative significance, with great use of garlands, emblems and trophies. In ...


Rosamond Allwood

(b 1750-29-09 or 1782–3; d London, May 1, 1818).

English cabinetmaker and sculptor. He seems to have acquired an early training in sculpture from his mother, who made a display of life-size waxwork figures, exhibited in and around Birmingham from 1794. By 1798 he had gained a reputation as a portrait sculptor and soon set up independently as a ‘Miniature-painter and Portrait-modeller in Rice-paste’. His brother, William Bullock, opened a ‘Cabinet of Curiosites’ in Birmingham in 1800, moving to Liverpool in 1801. Bullock joined him there and by 1804 had gone into partnership with a looking-glass maker, William Stoakes of Church Street, Liverpool. They advertised themselves as ‘Cabinet Makers, General Furnishers and Marble Workers’ and in 1805 supplied Gothic furniture designed by Bullock to Cholmondeley Castle, Ches (in situ). The following year Bullock set up on his own in Bold Street, Liverpool, selling furniture and bronze ornaments. By 1806 he had acquired the Mona Marble quarries in Anglesey and sold ‘fashionable and elegant Sculptured and Plain Chimney Pieces’ at a separate showroom in Church Street....


Jean-Dominique Augarde

(b Amiens, Dec 16, 1685; d Paris, Jan 10, 1768).

French cabinetmaker and sculptor. He was taught by his father, François Cressent, a sculptor in Amiens, and became a maître-ébéniste on 9 January 1708. He subsequently became a pupil of François Girardon and became a maître sculpteur in the Académie de Saint-Luc, Paris, on 14 August 1714. He obtained the title of Ebéniste du Régent in 1719, which allowed him to trade as a cabinetmaker free from guild restrictions. The richest French patrons, the Portuguese Court and many German princes bought furniture from him. His work is of exceptional quality and epitomizes the Régence and early Louis XV styles, to which he remained faithful throughout his career. The forms of his pieces were perfectly curved and rendered sumptuous by abundant, virtuoso bronze mounts and emphatically serrated agraffe ornaments and mouldings. His lavish mounts to some extent obscured the restrained veneering or geometric marquetry, for which he almost always used rose-wood, purple-wood or satin-wood. Above all, however, he was a sculptor, and he contravened guild restrictions by modelling the bronzes that adorn his furniture himself; these included terminals depicting the ...


Gordon Campbell

(fl 1797).

French bronze-caster who established a factory in Paris c. 1797. He produced sculptures, candelabra and furniture (both bronze furniture and wooden furniture with gilt-bronze mounts), but increasingly came to specialize in clocks, sometimes in collaboration with a bronze-caster called Matelin, with whom he made various objects for the American president James Monroe, including the Hannibal clock (...


Ulrich Knapp


German family of sculptors and stuccoists. Johann Georg Dirr (b Weilheim, Ober-Bayern, 2 April 1723; d Mimmenhausen, nr Konstanz, 9 Oct 1779) and his brother Franz Anton Dirr (b Weilheim, 8 June 1724; d Überlingen, nr Konstanz, 15 June 1801) were sons of the sculptor Martin Dirr (1674–1733). They were taught in Weilheim by their stepfather, Franz Xaver Schmädl, whose training left its mark on their style, especially on that of Johann Georg Dirr, whose work is very sensitively executed. There is evidence that the brothers worked in Mimmenhausen as journeymen in the workshop of Feuchtmayer family, §3 from 1749 and 1752 respectively. In 1753 Johann Georg Dirr moved to Stockach, but in 1756 he went back to the workshop in Mimmenhausen and in 1759 was mentioned as being in joint charge there together with Feuchtmayer. The two men collaborated on commissions in the pilgrimage church at Neubirnau (...


Carola Wenzel

(b Paris, c. 1657–87; d Munich, bur May 23, 1742).

French sculptor and stuccoist, active in Germany. After training in Paris he worked in Berlin and possibly also Dresden. In 1716 Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, appointed him court sculptor, and he became a member of the French artists’ colony in Munich. In 1716–17 he worked at Schloss Nymphenburg; his stuccowork on the main façade has, however, been much altered by later renovation. He also made numerous stucco reliefs for the decoration of the interior. In 1719 Maximilian Emanuel had put in hand an extension of the Neues Schloss in Schleissheim: there Dubut’s work is most notably represented by the Viktoriensaal, one of the finest extant Baroque interiors (c. 1723), in which 12 herms of Hercules support the ceiling above the main cornice, with putti below. Dubut’s ornamental stuccowork on the corbels in the Hofkapelle (Maximilianskapelle) at Schleissheim is also noteworthy. In 1721 Dubut worked on the Badesaal, the great hall of the Badenburg in the park of Schloss Nymphenburg, where he made the consoles for the busts below the gallery....


Klaus Lankheit


(b ?April 9, 1691; d Mannheim, Jan 11, 1752).

German sculptor, stuccoist, draughtsman and illustrator. He was the most important sculptor active in Franconia and the Palatinate in the first half of the 18th century; nevertheless, although his very individual late Baroque sculpture, mostly carved in wood, was highly regarded by his contemporaries, he was quickly forgotten after his death. His rich oeuvre was severely depleted, particularly as a result of World War II. It was only after that date that his importance was reassessed. Egell probably served an apprenticeship with the Würzburg sculptor Balthasar Esterbauer (1672–1722) and collaborated on the interior decoration of the Banz monastery. His first documented work is an expressive Crucifix made in 1716 for St Michael’s Monastery in Bamberg (now in St Otto, Bamberg). His stylistic development was affected by his work between 1716–17 and 1719 as one of the team directed by Balthasar Permoser, which made all the sculptural decorations at the Zwinger in Dresden for ...


Basil Hunnisett


English family of artists, of German origin. Francis Engelheart (b Silesia, 1713; d Kew, 1773) was a plaster modeller. He came to England c. 1721 and later worked as a decorative plasterer at Kew Palace for Frederick, Prince of Wales (1707–51), and his widow Augusta, the Princess Dowager (1719–72). He seems also to have produced decorative ceilings for Hampton Court Palace. After his death, his family changed the spelling of their name to Engleheart.

Two of Francis’s sons, John Dillman Engleheart (1735–1810) and Paul Engleheart (d 1774), carried on the business, while two others found success in other fields. Thomas Engleheart (b ?London, 1745; d ?London, 1786) was a sculptor and wax modeller, and George Engleheart (b Kew, ?Nov 1753; d Blackheath [now in London], 21 March 1829) was a painter. Thomas studied from 1769 at the Royal Academy schools, London, where he won a gold medal in ...


Maria Ida Catalano

(b Rovetta, Bergamo, Aug 26, 1659; d Rovetta, July 25, 1734).

Italian sculptor, architect and furniture-maker. He was the eldest son of the sculptor and carver Grazioso Fantoni (1630–93) and trained in his father’s flourishing workshop, which played a leading part in the supply of church furnishings in Bergamo, Parma and the surrounding provinces. In 1674 documents record Andrea in Parma, but in 1675 he was at Edolo, where he is recorded as an apprentice in the workshop of Pietro Ramus (?1639–82), a sculptor active in Valcamonica. It is thought that around 1678 he went to Venice to work in the workshop of the Genoese sculptor Filippo Parodi, a pupil of Bernini and a friend of Pierre Puget. Certainly Fantoni’s work gives stylistic evidence of contacts with Genoese and Venetian circles. In 1679 he returned to Rovetta, taking part from the early 1680s in a process of extensive stylistic modernization in the family workshop. This change can be seen in the contrast between Grazioso’s carved and inlaid wooden decorations and furnishings in the first sacristy (...


Ulrich Knapp


German family of stuccoists and sculptors. This extensive family from Wessobrunn in upper Bavaria were, along with the Feuchtmayer familys (a distinct family), the Zimmermann familys and the Schmuzer familys, leading figures in the Wessobrunn school, which played a leading role in south German architecture and decoration in the 18th century. The first major artists in the family were the sons of Michael Feichtmayer (1667–1706): (1) Johann Michael Feichtmayer and (2) Franz Xaver Feichtmayer (i), who often worked with their younger brother Anton Feichtmayer (b 1700). Franz Xaver Feichtmayer (i) married four times and had three children by his third wife: Maria Theresia (b 1729), who married Jakob Rauch; Simpert Feichtmayer (1732–1806), a stuccoist and barrel-painter; and (3) Franz Xaver Feichtmayer (ii), a stuccoist at the court in Munich.

NDB; Thieme–Becker P. von Stetten: Kunst-, Gewerb- und Handwerksgeschichte der Reichs-Stadt Augsburg...




António Filipe Pimentel


(b Milan, 1719; d Lisbon, 1781).

Italian sculptor and stuccoist, active in Portugal. Sometime between 1740 and 1750 he served Ferdinand VI of Spain as a military designer but fled to Portugal after being involved in a murder. His first commission was for the plaster decoration (before 1755; destr. 1755) of the ceiling of the church of the Mártires (Martyrs), Lisbon, which involved using moulds for the Rococo motifs. He was skilled in modelling stucco, wax and clay, and his lively use of Rococo ornament includes shell forms, flowers and asymmetrical motifs.

Grossi benefited from the patronage of Sebastian Carvalho e Mello, 1st Marquês de Pombal, and among projects commissioned by the Marquês were the stucco ceilings of his palace at Oeiras (c. 1770), now the property of the Gulbenkian Foundation. In 1755 Grossi carried out decorative work in the houses of the Machadinho family in Lisbon, with the assistance of Pedro Chantoforo and of his cousin ...


Bernd Wolfgang Lindemann

(b Tritschengreith [now Trischenreuth], Bavaria, March 3, 1720; d Bruchsal, July 2, 1789).

German sculptor and stuccoist. He may have trained with his uncle, the sculptor Ignaz Langelacher, in Moravia; the quality of his work suggests that he had some academic training, possibly in Munich, perhaps in the studio of Johann Baptist Straub. He worked in stone and in wood, as well as in stucco. In 1749–50 he produced statues of the Twelve Apostles for the church of Horgauergreuth, near Augsburg. In 1752 he carried out his first work at the Residenzschloss in Bruchsal for Franz Christoph von Hutten, Bishop of Speyer (1706–70); in 1755 the Bishop granted him protection. Apart from a short period spent working in Vienna, where he was summoned in 1773 to produce the group Ceres and Bacchus for the gardens at Schönbrunn, Günther continued to live in Bruchsal, working chiefly in the residences of the Bishops of Speyer in Bruchsal and Kislau; he also received commissions for churches of the region. Much of his work has been destroyed; what survives is difficult to characterize because of its uneven quality. Thus he is now thought to have contributed to the sandstone statues of the ...


Expression of 18th-century Swedish Neo-classicism during the reign of Gustav III (reg 1771–92; see Holstein-Gottorp, House of family, §2). As a cultured man and an advocate of the European Enlightenment, the King’s patronage of the visual arts was linked with patriotic ambition and an admiration for the French courtly life at Versailles. He spent part of 1770–71 in France, where he acquired a passion for the Neo-classical style. During his reign numerous palaces and country houses were built or refurbished in the Neo-classical style, either for himself or for members of his family and court. Early Gustavian interiors (c. 1770–85) were light and elegant interpretations of the Louis XVI style, with echoes of English, German and Dutch influences. Rooms were decorated with pilasters and columns; walls were applied with rich silk damasks or rectangular panels with painted designs framed in carved, gilded linear ornament and laurel festoons. Damask, usually crimson, blue or green, was used to upholster benches, sofas and chairs. Other rooms were panelled in wood, painted light-grey, blue or pale-green; the dominant feature was a columnar faience-tiled stove, decorated with sprigged floral patterns. Klismos-style chairs upholstered in silk were very popular, as were oval-backed chairs with straight, fluted legs, and bateau-shaped sofas were common. Rooms were embellished with long, giltwood-framed mirrors, crystal chandeliers, gilt ...



Fausta Franchini Guelfi

(b Genoa, Sept 18, 1664; d Genoa, March 7, 1739).

Italian sculptor and wood-carver. In 1680 he entered the workshop of his uncle, the sculptor Giovanni Battista Agnesi, as an apprentice, but he also attended the workshop of the furniture-maker Pietro Andrea Torre (d 1668). By 1688 he already had his own workshop in partnership with Giovanni Battista Pedevilla. The success of his work soon enabled him to open an independent workshop, where he was assisted by pupils, among them his own son, Giovanni Battista Maragliano (d after 1762). His early works include St Michael and Lucifer (1694; Celle Ligure, oratory of S Michele) and St Sebastian (1700; Rapallo, oratory of the Bianchi), both processional casse: groups of polychrome wooden statues made to be carried in procession by the religious confraternities on feast days. The larger part of Maragliano’s production consists of such monumental groups, in which the scenes from a saint’s life (ecstasy, martyrdom etc) are represented in a theatrical manner, expressing devotional wonder and intense emotional involvement. The lively colouring of the sculptures was done by specialist polychrome painters, at times under the supervision of Maragliano himself. Among the most famous of these ...


Alison Luchs

(b Florence, c. 1644; d Florence, June 22, 1713).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and architect. After training in Florence as a goldsmith, he studied with the painter Felice Ficherelli. In 1671 he went to Rome, having been chosen for the Tuscan Accademia Granducale. He studied sculpture under Ercole Ferrata and Ciro Ferri, showing a predilection for modelling rather than the marble carving expected by his patron, Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1672 he won first prize at the Accademia di S Luca for a terracotta relief of Decaulion and Pirra. He modelled the angels (1673–4) for the ciborium at the Chiesa Nuova (S Maria in Vallicella), which was designed by Ferri and cast by Stefano Benamati, and a terracotta relief of the Fall of the Giants (1674), pendant to a Niobid relief by Giovanni Battista Foggini (both Florence, Mus. Opificio Pietre Dure). When recalled to Florence in 1676, he was working on a more than life-size marble bust of ...


(b Berlin, Aug 22, 1710; d Kassel, Oct 22, 1781).

German sculptor and stuccoist. He was first trained by his father, the sculptor Johann Samuel Nahl (1664–1727), who since 1704 had been court sculptor to Frederick I in Berlin. At the age of 18 Nahl set out as a journeyman, travelling via Sigmaringen and Berne to Strasbourg, where from 1728 he worked as an assistant to Robert Le Lorrain. In 1731 he went to Paris, where he spent two years studying ornament. In 1734 he spent a year in Rome, then travelled in Italy. In 1735 he moved to Schaffhausen, where he executed various stuccowork projects that cannot now be identified; he then returned to Strasbourg, where he set up as an independent sculptor and decorator. He worked first for the royal praetor Klinglin, and subsequently for Cardinal Armand-Gaston de Rohan-Soubise on the episcopal palace, now known as the Palais Rohan, which had been started in 1731. In ...