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Article

Aurélie Verdier

(b Saïda, Algeria, 1953).

French painter, sculptor, photographer, film maker, writer and installation artist of Algerian birth. Born to Spanish parents, he was much affected by North African as well as Southern European culture. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre. Despite a pervasive and diverse use of media, Alberola often stressed the coexistence of his different artistic practices as leading to painting alone. His paintings relied heavily on evocative narratives, at once personal and ‘historical’. Alberola conceived of his role as a storyteller, on the model of African oral cultures. Convinced that narratives could not be renewed, he argued that a painter’s main task was to reactivate his work through contact with his pictorial heritage. The main points of reference for his paintings of the early 1980s were Velázquez, Manet or Matisse, whose works he quoted in a personal way. In the early 1980s he undertook a series of paintings inspired by mythological subjects, which he combined with his own history as the principal subject-matter of his work. The biblical story of Susannah and the Elders as well as the Greek myth of Actaeon provided his most enduring subjects, both referring to the act of looking as taboo, as in ...

Article

Andreas Franzke

Reviser Jean Robertson

(b Paris, Sept 6, 1944).

French sculptor, photographer, painter, film maker and installation artist. Self-taught (Boltanski stopped attending school at the age of 12), he began painting in 1958 but first came to public attention in the late 1960s with short avant-garde films and with the publication of notebooks in which he came to terms with his childhood. Boltanski grew up in Paris in the aftermath of World War II. During the Nazi occupation of Paris, his Jewish father hid in a secret room, only emerging after the liberation of Paris, which coincided with Christian’s birth. The combination in Boltanski’s works of real and fictional evidence of his and other people’s existence has remained central to his art throughout his career, as has his interest in mortality and in the operations of memory and forms of remembrance. In the 1970s he experimented inventively with the production of objects made of clay and from unusual materials such as sugar and gauze dressings. These works, some of them entitled ...

Article

Aurélie Verdier

(b Toulouse, 1952).

French photographer and sculptor. Bustamante studied economics at the University of Toulouse. In 1972 he went to Provence to study photography for two years, before becoming assistant to William Klein, at which time he produced his own first portfolio. His first independent work was a series of 120 colour cibachromes named Tableaux, begun in 1977 and pursued over the five next years. Conceived like paintings in their frontality and highly detailed depiction of desolated landscapes, their 8-by-10-inch formats recall those of commercial photography as well as easel painting. Selectively framed and therefore always incomplete, they lack any documentary or narrative value. Bustamante's interest in the object became evident from his five-year collaboration (1983–87) with the French sculptor Bernard Basile (b 1952), whose free-spirited reinterpretation of visual codes were called BasileBustamante. At the 1987 Documenta in Kassel, Bustamante exhibited alone. In the same year, he redirected his attention to sculpture and installation: ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Croydon, May 18, 1953, d London, March 15, 1996).

English sculptor, photographer and installation artist. She studied at Brighton Polytechnic (1973–6) and the Chelsea School of Art, London (1976–7). She lived and worked in London, and lectured at the Royal College of Art, Chelsea School of Art and the London Institute. Chadwick’s innovative and provocative use of a rich variety of materials, such as flesh, flowers, chocolate and fur, was hugely influential on a younger generation of British artists. Her strongly associative and visceral images were intended to question gender representation and the nature of desire. In the early performance There’s Absolutely Nothing to Worry About, which she presented with Philip Stanley at the Spectro Gallery in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1979, she staged an interaction between a lone male and female on a London Underground train. Here Chadwick dealt, from a strongly feminist perspective, with gender power relations taking place in a depersonalized public space. This theme was continued in ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Nottingham, 1966).

English photographer, sculptor and film maker. He studied at Trent Polytechnic (1985–6), and then at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1986–9), at which time he was included in the exhibition Freeze (London, Surrey Docks, 1988). For his first solo exhibition in 1990 (London, Riverside Studios), he created One Photo, Four Broads and a Stretcher (photograph on wood with broad light, 5.49×2.74 m, 1990; artist’s priv. col., see 1997 exh. cat., p. 44), comprising a colour photographic reproduction of Watteau’s L’Enseigne de Gersaint (1721; Berlin, Schloss Charlottenburg), greatly enlarged and cursorily attached to a wooden frame. By displaying a reproduction in this way, Collishaw highlights issues of representation, raised in the original painting through the juxtaposition of the false idyll of the fête galante, and the actualities of the art market. Much of Collishaw’s subsequent work makes historical and art-historical references that hinge around the broad theme of the interaction between nature and culture. ...

Article

Erika Billeter

(b Salvador, Bahia, 1947; d Salvador, Bahia, Aug 9, 2009).

Brazilian photographer and sculptor. In 1964 he trained as a photographer in Berlin, returning to Brazil in 1966. He worked with the photographer Hans Mann in Rio de Janeiro, and as Fulvio Roiter’s assistant on the latter’s journey to Bahia. In 1969 he visited New York, and in the 1970s worked as a sculptor and photographer in São Paolo. In 1980 Cravo Neto won the prize for the best photographer of 1980 from the society of Brazilian art critics. This was in recognition of his extraordinary work in portrait studies, which he produced in front of a dramatic black background, as in Tep, the Indian (1980; see 1988 exh. cat.).

Cravo Neto, Mario La Ciudad de Bahia (Brasília, 1980)Mario Cravo visto da Mario Cravo Neto (Brasília, 1983) Brasil, fotografie di Mario Cravo Neto (exh. cat., intro. J. Amado; Venice, Pal. Fortuny, 1988)Cartographies: 14 artistas latinamericanos...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

(b Cork, 1956).

Irish sculptor, installation artist and photographer. She completed a BA in 3D Design at Leicester Polytechnic (1974–7), and an MA in Printmaking at the San Francisco Art Institute, CA (1980–82). Her sculptures of the early 1980s were hybrids combining religious architecture with mechanical and found objects, as in Bishop (1984–5; see 1991 exh. cat., fig.), which uses a megaphone and chair to parody the authority of the Irish Catholic Church. In the late 1980s she took over a space in a disused electricity plant near Dublin, turning it into a studio in which objects collected from the abandoned space formed the basis of her major series of installations, Powerhouse (1989–91). The exclusively male domain of the disused plant is subverted, in works such as Screen (Ladies Changing Room) (1990–91): behind screens constructed from old locker doors, hard hats with nipples attached to their tops, cast in bronze, hang from hooks. Exploring gender differences, she produces surrealistic combinations of objects that upset conventional notions of identity and power. In the 1990s Cross used cowhides and udders as a central motif in her work, as in ...

Article

Edward Hanfling

[William] (Franklin)

(b Port Chalmers, Jan 23, 1935).

New Zealand photographer, sculptor, installation artist, and painter, active also in France and Great Britain. Culbert consistently explored the workings of both natural and artificial light in his works, as well as the transformation of found objects and materials. A student at Hutt Valley High School, his artistic ability was fostered by the radical art educator James Coe. From 1953 to 1956, Culbert studied at the Canterbury University College School of Art in Christchurch. Moving to London in 1957 to attend the Royal College of Art, he became interested in the photographic works of László Moholy-Nagy and Man Ray, while his paintings were informed by Cubism. In 1961 Culbert moved to Croagnes in Provence, France; he remained in France and the UK for the rest of his career.

During 1967–8, Culbert shifted his focus from the analysis of form and light in painting to the analysis of actual light, often arranging light bulbs in grid formations. In ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b St Tönis, nr Krefeld, Oct 8, 1954).

German photographer, sculptor and painter. He studied from 1971 to 1977 at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf under Joseph Beuys and from 1979 to 1981 was a member of the Cologne artists’ group Mülheimer Freiheit, which he co-founded with the artist Jiři Georg Dokoupil. His early exposure included his participation in Documenta 7 (Kassel, 1982) and the exhibition Zeitgeist (W. Berlin, Martin-Gropius-Bau, 1982), where he achieved recognition with Neo-Expressionist works of the late 1970s and early 1980s, vigorous and brightly coloured paintings that were part of a wider return to expressive figuration. He broadened his range of media in the mid-1980s to include photography and screenprinting as part of a general questioning of the value and pre-eminence of painting. At the same time his work became more political, addressing specific issues such as race and the relationship between first- and third-world societies. Still based in Cologne, in 1990 he co-founded the group Unternehmen Wirtschaft und Kunst–erweitert (‘Enterprise Economy and Art–Expanded’), a movement strongly influenced by the social commitment advocated by Beuys and continuing his ecological activism. In the mid-1990s he produced a series of miniature reconstructions of houses, based on photographs taken by the American photographer Walker Evans of rural homesteads in the American South....

Article

John-Paul Stonard

Swiss sculptors, photographers, video artists and installation artists. Peter Fischli (b Zurich, 8 June 1952) studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Urbino (1975–6) and the Accademia di Belle Arti, Bologna (1976–7). David Weiss (b Zurich, 21 June 1946) studied at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Zurich (1963–4), and the Kunstgewerbeschule, Basel (1964–5). Their first collaborative venture was a series of ten colour photographs, Wurstserie (‘sausage series’, 1979; Minneapolis, MN, Walker A. Cent.), depicting small scenes constructed with various types of meat and sausage and everyday objects, with titles such as At the North Pole and The Caveman. Such playful use of common objects became central to their work, an aspect of their disdain for what they term ‘Bedeutungskitsch’ (the kitsch of heavy meaning and overwrought rhetoric). Der Lauf der Dinge (‘The Flow of Things’, 16mm colour film transferred to laser disc, 30 mins, ...

Article

Zachary Baker

(b Füssen, nr Munich, Feb 19, 1952; d Freiburg, Dec 5, 2013).

German painter, sculptor and photographer. He studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich from 1971 to 1974 and was part of the post-war generation of German artists for whom modernism had become tainted with the horrors of Fascism. Ranging from sculpted heads through abstract painting to architectural photography, much of Förg’s work displays a preoccupation with processes of fragmentation and visual or physical resistance exemplified by the grainy quality of his photographs and his assertive use of glass as a barrier that separates the viewer from the surface while projecting his image onto it. Architectural motifs lend themselves particularly to such treatment. Colonia Marina, Calambrone (1986; London, Tate) is part of a series of images of children’s holiday camps built in the 1930s by the Italian Fascist regime. In an untitled photography installation (exh. Tokyo, Touko Mus. Contemp. A., 1991; see 1992 exh. cat. pp. 32–6), Förg addressed the Bauhaus Dessau building in a manner that subverts the grandeur of the architectural project, offering a series of fragmentary images of a singularly monolithic structure. Förg’s painting style is thoughtfully anachronistic, sometimes recalling the self-assurance of Mondrian’s work in geometrical composition, sometimes the more mystical Barnett Newman. The toxic and heavy surfaces of an untitled work of ...

Article

Ađalsteinn Ingólfsson

(b Dalir, west Iceland, Feb 19, 1943).

Icelandic painter, sculptor, photographer and conceptual artist, active in the Netherlands. He studied at the Myndlista- og handíÐaskóli Íslands (Icelandic School of Arts and Crafts), Reykjavík (1958–60), in Rome (1966–7) and in Limoges (1970–71), after which he moved to the Netherlands. He was one of the founding members of the Icelandic avant-garde group SÚM and he took part in its first exhibition in 1965. His early work consists of emblematic abstract paintings, enlivened with three-dimensional elements such as nails or rope (e.g. Painting; 1966, Reykjavík, N.G.). When he developed an interest in conceptual art, FriÐfinnsson began to use photography as a medium for concretizing his ideas, which derive from Icelandic myth and folklore as well as from dreams and poetry.

FriÐfinnsson’s House Project (1974) was suggested by a story by the Icelandic writer Thórbergur ThórÐarson about an old man who wanted to build an inside-out house. FriÐfinnsson built a house that fitted this description at a secret venue in Iceland and then photographed it (see ...

Article

Elaine O’Brien

(b Bad Oldesloe, Nov 27, 1948).

German sculptor, photographer, film maker, video artist and collagist. Genzken attended the Hochschule für bildende Künste in Hamburg between 1969 and 1971, the Universität der Künste in Berlin from 1971 to 1973, the Universität zu Köln between 1973 and 1975, and from 1973 to 1977 she studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf as a student of Gerhard Richter, to whom she was married from 1982 to 1995. Genzken was part of the post-war generation of West German artists, including Blinky Palermo and Sigmar Polke, who identified with American internationalism.

A trip to New York in 1977 marked the beginning of a long fascination with the city and Genzken’s signature architectonic oeuvre. Noted for its exceptional range of materials, methods and formal vocabulary, the coherence of Genzken’s production—both in individual artworks and the sequence of series—is largely found in the sustained dialogical tension that links the Minimalist rationalism of New York skyscrapers with the anti-rationalist carnival of real life as lived in the cosmopolitan city. Her first series of sculptures (...

Article

Anthony Gardner

(b Singapore, July 12, 1959).

Malaysian conceptual artist, active also in Australia. Gill studied at the University of Western Sydney, completing her MA in 2001. Despite working in a range of media, she is best understood as a process-based artist who has consistently explored notions of migration and transformation within material culture. These include the effects of international trade on such everyday activities as cooking and eating. The spiral form of Forking Tongues (1992; Brisbane, Queensland A.G.), for example, entwines Western cutlery and dried chillies from the Americas and Asia, highlighting how foods and utensils from across the globe have come together to transform local cuisines and inform culinary habits. Gill’s later photographic series refer to other understandings of migration, such as the spread of the English language or of capitalist desire throughout South-east Asia in recent decades. For Forest (1998; Sydney, Roslyn Oxley9 Gallery; see Chua), Gill cut out words and sentences from books written in English, placed the texts within tropical landscapes and photographed the results before the books’ paper began rotting into the humid environment. For ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Cheshire, July 26, 1956).

English sculptor and photographer. He studied fine art at Bradford School of Art (1974–5) and at Preston Polytechnic (1975–8). Goldsworthy works in the open air with natural materials such as stones, leaves and ice. Like other artists associated with ‘Land Art’, such as Richard Long and Hamish Fulton, he uses photographs as permanent documents of the ephemeral structures left in isolated locations. His sculptures are, as he puts it, ‘there all the time’, their aesthetic and formal qualities revealed by his work in and with the landscape. Changing seasons and weather conditions play a large part, often dictating the possibility of making a work, as well as its final appearance. The changeable British weather gives both transience and urgency to sculptures that can melt, topple over or be blown away. Goldsworthy records his work photographically before such damage occurs. Although most are created outdoors in isolation, he has also produced sculptures for galleries (...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

[González-Torres, Félix]

(b Guaimaro, Cuba, Nov 26, 1957; d New York, Jan 9, 1996).

American sculptor and photographer of Cuban birth. He moved in 1979 to New York, where he completed a BFA in photography at the Pratt Institute (1983) and an MFA at the International Center of Photography, New York University (1987), as well as enrolling in the Whitney Museum of American Art Independent Study Program. In 1987 he joined Group Material, a New York-based group of artists whose intention was to work collaboratively, adhering to principles of cultural activism and community education. His own engagement as a gay man with socio-political issues, as well as his exploration of the way in which politics can infiltrate personal life, forms the background to his work, centred around the interaction of public and private spheres. In 1989 he presented his first stacked-paper work, Untitled (Memorial Day Weekend) and Untitled (Veterans Day Sale), exhibited together as Untitled (Monuments) (L. and R. Plehn priv. col., see ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b West Byfleet, Surrey, March 23, 1963).

English sculptor and photographer. He studied in London at the Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts (1983–7), and at the Royal College of Art, (MFA, 1988–90). At his first solo show (London, Anderson O’Day Gal., 1992) he displayed a series of photographs framed behind sand-blasted and frosted glass that reflected on the effects of framing works of art, both in a literal and broader sense. Some of the photographs showed typically bare and white gallery spaces, in a blurred and ambiguous way, turning their cool aesthetic into something more attractive and sensual. By framing the spaces that themselves ordinarily frame works of art, Hartley creates a highly suggestive space intended to provoke critical and theoretical reflection about institutions and aesthetic cognition. Other works, such as Untitled (Sackler) (glass, MDF, photograph, 1992; London, Saatchi Gal.), showing a similarly diffused image of a contemporary interior, create less specific, more poetic, spaces. In a series of sculptures of the late 1990s, Hartley considered future ways in which institutions create a highly controlled, yet inscrutable environment for presenting art. ...

Article

G. Lola Worthington

(b Buffalo, NY, 1950).

Tuscarora artist, writer, educator, and museum director. Hill studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1968–70), and was awarded a Master of Arts degree from SUNY, Buffalo, NY (1980).

Intrigued with Seneca General Ely Parker (General Grant’s Military Secretary), Hill investigated Parker’s life, which took him to Washington, DC, for two years. Hill began to identify with Parker’s experience and realized he would devote himself to enlightening others about Native American arts, knowledge, education, and culture.

Hill was skilled in painting, photography, carving, beading, and basket weaving, and many of these works are located at the Canadian Museum of Civilizations, Quebec; the Woodland Indian Cultural Center, Brantford, Ontario; the Cleveland Museum of Art; the Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, OK; the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC; and the Seneca Iroquois National Museum, Salamanca, NY. He taught at McMaster University, Mohawk College, Six Nations Polytechnic, and SUNY at Buffalo. Hill developed a culturally based Seneca Language curriculum and training models for teaching....

Article

Morgan Falconer

Reviser Jean Robertson

(b Brussels, Dec 6, 1961).

Belgian sculptor, installation and conceptual artist active in Germany and Sweden. He studied phytopathology (plant diseases) and agronomic entomology at the University of Kiel, where he received a doctorate in 1988. After an early career as an agricultural scientist specializing in insect communication, Höller became a full-time artist in 1993. He created a wide variety of objects and situations, many of them participatory in nature, using such means as toys, animals, flashing lights, mirrors, sensory deprivation tanks, dark passages, giant slides, carousel rides, pheromones and huge rotating sculptural replicas of upside-down fly agaric (a poisonous, hallucinogenic mushroom; see fig.). His art projects include various optical and sensory experiments that explore individual physiological and psychological reactions to experiences that alter perception and consciousness. Despite his scientific training, Höller’s goals as an artist have not been to achieve the certainty of quantifiable scientific conclusions. Rather he has emphasized doubt and the inability to achieve conclusive explanations. He signalled his preoccupation with doubt in ...

Article

Klaus Ottmann

(b New York, Sept 24, 1955).

American sculptor, installation artist, draughtsman, photographer, and writer. Horn studied at the Rhode Island School of Design and at the Yale University School of Art. From 1975 she began to travel frequently to Iceland, whose primordial, unstable landscape influenced her artistic practice.

Always intent to maintain the integrity of her chosen materials, be it solid glass, literature, or the volcanic topography of Iceland, Horn created complex relationships between the viewer and her work. She was less interested in the meaning of the work (the ‘why’ and ‘what’) and more in the interaction of action and being the ‘how’, ultimately creating art that unites both.

Her series of aluminium sculptures, which feature fragments from the writings of Franz Kafka and Emily Dickinson, such as Kafka’s Palindrome (1991–4) or Keys and Cues (1994), are reminiscent of the Minimalist sculptures of Donald Judd and Michael Fried’s famous definition of Minimalist art as ‘literal art’. However, Horn’s ‘literal’ transfer of words onto matter changes the meaning of both the original words and the materials used: taken out of context, the meaning of the original words becomes amalgamated with the meaning embedded in the material. By adding literacy to matter, the sculpture becomes nonliteral, but not devoid of content....