1-10 of 10 results  for:

  • Architecture and Urban Planning x
  • 1600–1700 x
  • Renaissance and Mannerism x
Clear all

Article

Leonor Ferrão

(bapt Lisbon, Sept 30, 1643; d Lisbon, Nov 25, 1712).

Portuguese architect and master mason. He worked in the context of a national tradition marked by Mannerism and the Plain style (see Portugal, Republic of, §II, 2), but he also contributed to the progressive acceptance of new Baroque concepts of space in Portugal, as shown in the use of polygonal plans. He gave a festive and sumptuous treatment to the interiors of his buildings, using inlay of coloured jasper or marble, which is sometimes combined with carved and gilded woodwork (talha) and blue and white azulejos (glazed tiles). Antunes probably learnt these intarsia techniques from the examples of the decorations (c. 1665–92; destr. 1755) of the nave and chancel of the church of the convent of S Antão-o-Novo, Lisbon, and those (1668–c. 1707) of the sacristy of the convent church of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon. In 1670 Antunes was admitted to the Irmandade de S José dos Carpinteiros e Pedreiros in Lisbon, which gave him professional status as master mason. In ...

Article

[Cesari, Giuseppe]

(b Arpino, nr Sora, 1568; d Rome, July 3, 1640).

Italian painter and draughtsman . His father, Muzio Cesari, was probably a painter; his brother, Bernardino Cesari (1571–1622), became his principal assistant. Giuseppe’s precocious talent for drawing led his mother to take him to Rome in 1581–2, where he became a colour mixer under Niccolò Circignani, then directing the decoration of the third of the great Vatican Logge for Gregory XIII. Circignani promoted him to the painting team; a tiny figure of Abundance on the vault of the seventh compartment has been identified as his earliest known work. During 1583 Giuseppe also worked at the Vatican on the monochrome figure of Samson with the Gates of Gaza in the Sala Vecchia degli Svizzeri and the restoration of the Prophets and Virtues painted by the Raphael workshop in the Sala dei Palafrenieri. Towards the end of the year the Pope granted Giuseppe a salary. Probably in 1584–5 he contributed a fresco of the ...

Article

Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos

(b Murcia, 1594; d Madrid, May 20, 1679).

Spanish architect. He entered the Jesuit Order at 16 as a lay brother and began his career as a carpenter and assembler of retables. His earliest work included the Mannerist retable in the church of the Jesuit college of Alcalá de Henares and the tabernacle in Juan Gómez de Mora’s Bernadine church (c. 1624–30) in the same city. The latter is an empty, free-standing feature, placed on the altar, quite distinct from the traditional Spanish retable, which rests against the rear wall of the sanctuary. In 1633 he replaced the lay brother Pedro Sánchez (1568–?1633) as master of the works at the church of the Colegio Imperial in Madrid, now the cathedral of S Isidoro. There he built the vaults and the dome over the crossing, the latter being the first instance of the ‘cúpula encamonada’, a dome constructed using a timber frame (‘camón’), roofed in slate and plastered inside, with a brick drum. The ease of construction of this type of dome, its low cost and its structural stability made it the prototype of Madrid domes in the Baroque period. Bautista reduced the height and width of the nave arcades in S Isidoro and replaced the capitals and entablatures of the façade columns and paired pilasters of the nave with others of his own particular invention. The capitals featured Corinthian foliage surmounted by an egg-and-dart moulding, while the entablatures displayed paired triglyph consoles....

Article

Maria Angela Mattevi

[Buon Consiglio; Trent; Trento]

Vast monumental complex built between the north and east gates of the ancient city walls (c. 1200–20) of Trent, the capital of Trentino in Italy. It has three main nuclei: the Castelvecchio, the Magno Palazzo and the Giunta Albertiana. The oldest part, Castelvecchio, was built (1239–55) around the strong donjon, the Torre d’Augusto, by the Imperial Podestà of Trent, Sodegerio da Tito (d 1255), who took up office in 1238. Its function was predominantly military. In 1277 it passed to the Church and became the residence of the prince–bishop of Trent. In subsequent centuries a series of modifications and extensions have brought the castle to its present form. Of fundamental importance were the works completed in 1475 by Giovanni Hinderbach (d 1486) with the aid of Venetian craftsmen, who built the Renaissance Gothic internal court with tiered open galleries and the small loggia on the third floor. At that time the walls of the upper loggia were frescoed with portraits of the bishops of Trent from the city’s origin to the year ...

Article

(b Hanoversch Münden, 1599 or 1602; d Hanoversch Münden, 1669).

German engraver, draughtsman and painter. His presence in the northern Netherlands c. 1620 is suggested by the woodcut Holy Family under a Tree (Hollstein, no. 4), which renders a design taken from Abraham Bloemaert in a chiaroscuro produced with one line and two tone blocks—a technique developed by Hendrick Goltzius. Between 1623 and 1629–30 Büsinck lived in Paris, producing woodcuts for the publisher Melchior Tavernier (1564–1641) after drawings by Georges Lallemand. The Holy Family with the Infant St John (1623; h 3) shows a more Italian technique, restricting contours to the black line and placing less emphasis on the use of the tone blocks. Subsequent work, such as the Moses (h 1) and the Apostles series (h 5–19) after Lallemand, synthesizes the clear black outlines of the Italian tradition with a lively decorative sway characteristic of the Dutch 17th-century style; while the systematic layers of parallel lines and crosshatching used in the ...

Article

Giuseppe Pinna

(Rome)

Giuseppe Pinna

The construction of a worthy seat for the emerging Society of Jesus (see Jesuit Order, §1) was delayed by the opposition of the families (especially the Altieri) who owned the land on which the church was to be built. The first plan for Il Gesù (SS Nome di Gesù), produced in 1549–50 by Nanni di Baccio Bigio, was for a longitudinal scheme with six chapels flanking the nave and a short transept. The work was soon interrupted, however, and the efforts of Cardinal della Cueva to have it resumed had little effect, although he had obtained a new plan free of charge in 1554 from Michelangelo.

In 1568 building began in earnest thanks to the lavish patronage of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who put Jacopo Vignola in charge along with the Jesuit Giovanni Tristano (d 1575). Vignola adopted the longitudinal scheme with stubby transepts and three interconnected chapels at each side of the nave, respecting the wishes of Farnese, who considered the plan most suitable for the devotional requirements of the Counter-Reformation liturgy. Two additional chapels were set into the sides of the apse. The strong spatial unity of the interior (...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Vergara, 1562; d Lima, 1635).

Spanish architect and sculptor active in Peru. He was trained as a sculptor by Cristóbal Velázquez (d 1616), a Mannerist of the school of Alonso Berruguete. He arrived in Lima c. 1599 and carved the life-sized reliefs of Christ and the Apostolate (1608) in cedar above the chests in the sacristy of the cathedral. They are imposing but do not strive for realism, betraying the influence of the Antique, particularly in the disposition and layout of the channelled folds and drapery and through references to Renaissance classicism. In 1614 he was appointed Maestro Mayor of Lima Cathedral, a post which he retained until his death. He is also known to have worked on the stone façade of S Lázaro. Following the earthquakes of 1606 and 1609, various architects were consulted on how to re-roof the cathedral. Wooden vaults were rejected, and Martínez de Arrona proposed Gothic ribbed vaults, executed in brick. This proposal was followed, and the church was completed by ...

Article

Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

[Nuvola, Vincenzo de]

(b Naples, 1570; d Naples, ?1636–7).

Italian architect and Dominican friar. He was active in Naples as an ecclesiastical architect after his training in the principles of Renaissance architecture, which was complemented by a study tour through Italy. His scheme for S Maria della Sanità (1602–13), Naples, takes its place within the context of a number of interrelated churches begun in Italy between 1584 and 1612, the layouts of which are all influenced by the centralized plan of St Peter’s, Rome. S Maria della Sanità has a Greek-cross plan inscribed on the diagonals of a square, with a large central dome covered with multicoloured ceramic tiles, and 12 lesser domes distributed between the triangular zones created by the projection of the transepts. Beside this church Fra Nuvolo built a bell-tower (1614) with superimposed orders, terminating in an octagon, crowned by a small dome with the profile of a dolphin’s back, a sacristy (...

Article

(b Giovinazzo, 1613; d Bitonto, Sept 12, 1678).

Italian painter and architect. He was the son of a painter, Massenzio Rosa. He moved to Bitonto in his early years, and it seems likely that he trained there with an artist working in a late Mannerist style. He was encouraged by the Bishop of Bitonto, Fabrizio Carafa, to move to Naples, where he spent the years 1636–41 in the workshop of Massimo Stanzione (de Dominici). He may also have visited Rome in this period: his luminous and painterly surfaces suggest a response to the art of Guercino. His only documented work in Naples is the Christ Healing the Epileptic, painted for the convent of S Maria della Sapienza, where the abbess was Isabella, another member of the noble Carafa family. This simple composition, with the figures arranged in a clearly defined space parallel to the picture plane, remains tied to late 16th-century religious art in Naples. It has a Counter-Reformation clarity and directness, although enriched by a more characteristically Baroque brilliance of colour and dramatic contrast of light and shade. De Dominici also ascribes to Rosa three paintings in SS Apostoli, Naples, attributions that Wiedmann (see ...

Article

Jonathan Bober

Observant Franciscan foundation and pilgrimage site in Piedmont, Italy.

Situated in the diocese of Novara, the Sacro Monte occupies about 12 wooded ha on top of a spur rising c. 160 m above the town of Varallo. The monument’s primary feature is 44 chapels, in which scenes from or associated with the Life of Christ are rendered as life-size dioramas, consisting of groups of figures in various materials against painted background scenes. These chapels are either free-standing or grouped within secondary structures to suggest their scenes’ shared locations, are evenly distributed around the summit, and are connected in approximately chronological order of their events by a main path. Their sequence concludes at a central piazza and the monument’s secondary feature, a basilica dedicated to the Virgin of the Assumption. Reflecting a succession of conceptions and programmes, the whole combines a monastic retreat, a delightful park and a penitential vehicle.

The earliest architecture of the Sacro Monte was designed by Brother ...