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Humberto Rodríguez-Camilloni

(Domínguez )

(fl 1648–69).

Spanish architect, active in Peru. On 23 March 1648 he signed a contract with the Franciscans to build rib vaults over the transept and apse of the church of S Francisco in Cuzco. These vaults, which were built in brickwork, withstood the earthquake of 1650 and are evidence of the survival of Gothic building techniques in the New World. Another contract dated 16 August 1649 indicates that he was also responsible for the construction of similar rib vaulting in Cuzco Cathedral, begun to plans by Francisco Becerra in 1582. There he built 17 vaults over the nave and aisles of the cathedral, leading to the piers of the choir, all of brick masonry. Other major works by Chávez y Arellano in Cuzco included the construction of the chapel (1652) of the Jesuit School next to the church of La Compañía on the Plaza de Armas and the choir (1663) of the church of S Domingo, as well as private houses in the city of Cuzco. He also built the parish church (1663) in the nearby town of Paucartambo....

Article

Maria Concepción García Sáiz and Liliana Herrera

Spanish family of architects, active in Mexico from 1690 to after 1750. It is assumed that José Durán, Miguel Custodio Durán, and Diego Durán Berruecos were related, although research to date has not produced any firm evidence. José Durán was responsible for the plan of the basilica of Guadalupe, which was built (1695–1709) by Pedro de Arrieta at the foot of the hill of Tepeyac, north of Mexico City. It is longitudinal in plan, with aisles, but centrally organized with a crossing dome equidistant from the sanctuary and the entrance. This dome presides over each elevation, framed by octagonal bell-towers at the corners. A possible stylistic source is the Basílica del Pilar (begun 1681), Saragossa, Spain.

Miguel Custodio Durán is associated with a series of works carried out in Mexico City. The most important of these is the church of S Juan de Dios (1729) on the north side of the Alameda Gardens. The main elevation is dished inwards in the manner of a ...

Article

Humberto Rodríguez-Camilloni

(b 1617; d Lima, 1696).

Peruvian architect. He was a friar of the Dominican order in Lima and one of the most active architects in Peru during the second half of the 17th century. His earliest known work was a new plan (1643) for the cathedral at Trujillo, on the north coast. However, all his known works from 1659 were in Lima: that year he signed a contract to repair the water system in the main cloister of the convent of Nuestra Señora de la Concepción, and in 1663 the Sagrario was begun to his designs on the Plaza de Armas. Following the earthquake of 1678, Maroto took charge of the reconstruction of the transept of S Domingo and designed a new dome using quincha, a light construction of plastered reeds on a timber frame, an anti-seismic system first used in Peru in 1657 by Constantino de Vasconcelos. Maroto also rebuilt (1678–81...

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Vergara, 1562; d Lima, 1635).

Spanish architect and sculptor active in Peru. He was trained as a sculptor by Cristóbal Velázquez (d 1616), a Mannerist of the school of Alonso Berruguete. He arrived in Lima c. 1599 and carved the life-sized reliefs of Christ and the Apostolate (1608) in cedar above the chests in the sacristy of the cathedral. They are imposing but do not strive for realism, betraying the influence of the Antique, particularly in the disposition and layout of the channelled folds and drapery and through references to Renaissance classicism. In 1614 he was appointed Maestro Mayor of Lima Cathedral, a post which he retained until his death. He is also known to have worked on the stone façade of S Lázaro. Following the earthquakes of 1606 and 1609, various architects were consulted on how to re-roof the cathedral. Wooden vaults were rejected, and Martínez de Arrona proposed Gothic ribbed vaults, executed in brick. This proposal was followed, and the church was completed by ...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Cuzco; fl 1664–80).

Peruvian architect and sculptor. He was the son of the architect Sebastián Martínez (d c. 1660), from whom he received his training. After his native city was destroyed in the earthquake of 1650, he rebuilt the façade and towers (which he may also have designed) of the Jesuit church of La Compañía, one of the finest in Peru, in 1664–8. His carving of the façade in the form of a retable in stone shows similarities to his work in wood for the retables inside this church. Martínez de Oviedo’s remarkable achievement as an architect and sculptor is seen in his designs for the cedarwood retable, pulpit, and façades of S Teresa, Cuzco, completed in 1676. Other works in Cuzco are in the churches of S Domingo (choir screen, 1665), S Sebastián near Cuzco (principal retable, 1679), and the Cathedral (side altar, 1667). His work in the cloister of the monastery of La Merced, Cuzco, on which he collaborated with his ...

Article

Mestizo  

Ramón Gutiérrez

[Sp.: ‘mixed’ or ‘hybrid’] (Baroque)

Term first used in its art-historical sense by Angel Guido (1925) to describe the fusion of Baroque architecture with indigenous art forms in South America and especially the Altiplano or highlands of Bolivia and Peru from the mid-17th century to the late 18th. Mestizo is characterized by massive Baroque structure with finely dressed stone detailing in exuberant flat patterns reminiscent of embroidery or wood-carving. Motifs incorporating indigenous fruits and animals were used on portals, retables, and decorative friezes; mythological characters play indigenous musical instruments; and Pre-Columbian decorative details help to fill every available space with dense ornamentation.

The most notable examples of the Mestizo style are to be found in the central Andes, at Arequipa in Peru, and at Potosí in Bolivia. In the region of Arequipa the use of a porous volcanic rock gave rise to a school of plane-surface carving that tended to stress chiaroscuro. The whole façade of the Jesuit church of ...

Article

Jorge Luján-Muñoz

Guatemalan family of architects. They were active in the 17th and 18th centuries and dominated the architecture of the whole of Central America for a century. José de Porres (b Santiago de Guatemala [now Antigua], 1635; d Santiago de Guatemala, 17 May 1703) was of mestizo and mulatto origin. He carried out his first works under the master builder Juan Pasqual, a mulatto, from whom he took over (1666) the construction of the church of the Hospital de S Pedro Apóstol, the first vaulted church in the city (completed 1669). He then became assistant architect on the new cathedral, a completely vaulted building, assuming charge from c. mid-1670 to its completion in 1686. A triumphal-arch system articulates the façade (for illustration see Antigua). His final works were the Belén church (completed 1678), the church and monastery of S Teresa (1683–7), churches and for the Jesuit order (completed ...

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Italy, 1561; d Cartagena de Indias, April 25, 1631).

Italian engineer, active in Spain and South America. He was the nephew of Juan Bautista Antonelli, whom he accompanied to Portugal during Philip II’s military campaigns from 1580 (see Antonelli family). Roda assisted Antonelli on an ambitious scheme to make the River Tagus navigable and transform the inner river basin for the benefit of Spanish commerce, and succeeded his uncle after the latter’s death in 1588. Roda was sent to Havana, Cuba, in 1593 to replace another uncle, Bautista Antonelli, who had been working on the city’s extensive fortifications. Roda worked there for many years, especially on the fortresses of La Punta and El Morro, either side of the narrow harbour entrance, where he exploited the locations and put into practice the most modern theories of bastioned fortification. In 1608 he went to Cartagena de Indias in Colombia to continue building the fortifications designed by Tiburzio Spannochi (...