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Article

Gavin Stamp

(b Cobham, Kent, June 9, 1862; d Cobham, Feb 4, 1946).

English architect and writer, also active in South Africa and India . He was articled to a cousin, Arthur Baker, a former assistant of George Gilbert Scott I, in 1879 and attended classes at the Architectural Association and Royal Academy Schools before joining the office of George & Peto in London (1882), where he first met and befriended Edwin Lutyens. Baker set up in independent practice in 1890 but moved to South Africa in 1892 to join his brother Lionel Baker. In Cape Town he met Cecil Rhodes, Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, who directed his attention to the traditional European Cape Dutch architecture of the province and asked him to rebuild his house Groote Schuur (1893, 1897), now the official residence of South Africa’s prime ministers. Applying the ideas of the English Arts and Crafts movement to local conditions, Baker produced a series of houses, both in the Cape Province and the Transvaal, which were instrumental in the revival of Cape Dutch architecture. In ...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b March 2, 1917).

English architect and writer, active in India . He graduated from the School of Architecture, Birmingham, and after serving as an anaesthetist in South-east Asia in World War II, he settled in India in 1945, first working as an architect/builder for a missionary organization in Pithorgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and from 1963 in Trivandrum, Kerala State. Inspired by the vernacular building of the area, he developed an architecture based only on local materials and stressing low-cost design. Other important influences were his Quaker religious beliefs, the philosophy of his friend Mahatma Gandhi, and his opposition to the architecture of Le Corbusier and the International style. Working as designer, builder and contractor, Baker has executed nearly 1000 works, mainly houses. Improvisation, for example using old building elements in new structures as in the Narayan House (1973), Trivandrum, is a characteristic of his approach. His house for T. N. Krishanan (1971...

Article

John Musgrove

(b Colombo, 1919; d Colombo, May 27, 2003).

Sri Lankan architect. He studied English literature at the University of Cambridge and was admitted to the Bar in 1943. After some years travelling in the USA and Europe he returned to Sri Lanka where, in 1949, he bought Lunuganga at Bentota, on the west coast south of Colombo, and initiated what became a widely renowned garden. He then returned to England to study architecture at the Architectural Association, London, graduating in 1956. He joined the Colombo practice of Edward Reid & Begg (1958) and began a close collaboration with the Danish architect Ulrik Plesner (b 1930), one of its partners, which lasted until 1967.

There are two distinct aspects to Bawa’s work. The first is an intensely personal flair for expressing what he called a ‘subconscious residue of understanding’ left in the mind by all kinds of buildings and landscapes in Sri Lanka and abroad; this was the basis of his celebration of the local vernacular, which grew out of Portuguese, Dutch and British influences as well as indigenous models. The second is the element of dynamism in his buildings, which stems from his belief that a building, like a garden, can only be experienced by moving through it. Bawa’s European training is most evident in his early works, although even these bear a personal stamp that immediately relates them to local culture, context and climate. The tennis club-house (...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Philip Davies

(b Bo’ness, 1866; d Edinburgh, Feb 23, 1937).

Scottish architect, active in India. He was educated at the Edinburgh Academy and Royal Academy Schools. At the RIBA he was a Silver Medallist (1894). After a period articled to Hippolyte Blanc (1844–1917), he worked with Alfred Waterhouse and R. W. Edis before going to South Africa as architect to the Real Estate Corporation. In 1901 he became Consulting Architect to the Government of Bombay, before succeeding James Ransome (1865–1944) as Consulting Architect to the Government of India in 1908, the first to be employed outside the ranks of the Public Works Department engineers. He remained in this post until 1921.

He was proficient in a wide variety of styles. He designed barracks and housing for the new cantonment at Delhi and devised a standardized design for the Post and Telegraph departments, of which the Nagpur Post Office and Agra Post Office (1913...

Article

British architectural partnership formed in London in 1952 by Peter Chamberlin (b London, 31 March 1919; d London, 23 May 1978), Geoffry Powell (b Bangalore, India, 7 Nov 1920) and Christof Bon (b St Gall, Switzerland, 1 Sept 1921). Chamberlin studied at the University of Oxford (1938–40) before training part-time as an architect at Kingston School of Art, London, where he qualified in 1948 and began to teach. Powell studied at the Architectural Association, London (1938–43), under Geoffrey Jellicoe and Frederick Gibberd. He then worked for Gibberd for 18 months and for Brian O’Rorke (1901–74) for two years before joining the teaching staff at Kingston (1948). Bon qualified as an architect at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Dip. Arch. 1946), and worked there for a short period as assistant to Ernst Burkhardt. He then moved to London and worked with ...

Article

Philip Davies

(b London, Jan 11, 1840; d Southsea, Hants, May 28, 1915).

English architect, active in India. One of the most versatile architects to work in British India, he practised briefly in Calcutta before arriving in 1865 in Madras, where he became the first head of the School of Industrial Art. An ardent advocate of the Indian revival in arts and crafts, he designed in a variety of styles, using Italianate for the Lawrence Asylum (1865; altered), Ootacamund, Gothic Revival for the Post & Telegraph Office (1875–84), Madras, and eclectic Indo-Saracenic for the Senate House (1874–9), University of Madras, with four corner towers crowned by onion domes. He also designed the Presidency College (1865) for the university and alterations to the Board of Revenue Offices (1870), formerly Chepauk Palace (see also Madras, §1). In 1881 he moved to Baroda (now Vadodara), where he took over the design of the colossal Laxmi Vilas Palace, begun by ...

Article

(b Shahjehanpur, India, 1923).

Indian architect, teacher and designer. Chowdhury trained at the University of Sydney, receiving her bachelor of architecture degree in 1947. After a brief period in the USA she returned to India in 1951 to work on Le Corbusier’s plans for Chandigarh, the new capital city of the Punjab. She subsequently held various official positions: Senior Architect for Chandigarh (1951–63); Chief Architect for Chandigarh (1971–76); Chief Architect of Punjab State (1976–81); and Chief Architect of Harayana State (1970–71). From 1963 to 1965 she was Principal of the Delhi School of Architecture and Planning. Chowdhury became a Fellow of the Indian Institute of Architects and was the first Indian woman elected as a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. After retiring from public service in 1981 she worked in private practice in Chandigarh. Chowdhury designed a wide variety of buildings for government, commercial, and private clients; she was responsible for the second phase of planning at Chandigarh as well as the planning of new townships and she also designed interiors and furniture. Her buildings exemplify Le Corbusier’s modernism. The main block of the Polytechnic for Women (...

Article

(Mark)

(b Hyderabad, Sept 1, 1930).

Indian architect and urban planner. He studied architecture at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1949–53), and at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (1953–5), under Buckminster Fuller. He then returned to India and in 1958 opened his own practice in Bombay. Correa was influenced by the later work of Le Corbusier but sought to develop new forms of modernism appropriate to Indian culture, producing designs that reflect a sensitive understanding of local climate and living patterns. His first important commission was the Gandhi Memorial Centre (1958–63), Ahmadabad, a study centre and museum on the site of the ashram where Mahatma Gandhi lived in 1917–30. The centre is designed with modular pavilions grouped asymmetrically around a central water court in a manner analogous to an Indian village. Some of the pavilions are open and others closed, with wooden-louvred unglazed openings. The pyramidal roofs reflect the traditional overhead canopy of the ...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Pune, Aug 26, 1927).

Indian architect, urban planner and teacher. He entered the J. J. College of Architecture, Bombay, in 1947 but left for London in 1951 and took courses at the North London Polytechnic. After attending the eighth meeting of CIAM (1951) in Hoddesdon, Doshi moved to Paris to work for Le Corbusier; this formative experience influenced his subsequent approach to architecture and planning. In 1955 he returned to India to help supervise Le Corbusier’s work at Chandigarh and Ahmadabad, and in 1956 he set up his own practice in Ahmadabad. Early independent commissions included some relatively luxurious houses and subsequently several industrial buildings, but his first significant work was the Institute of Indology (1962), Ahmadabad. In this building a concrete frame structure combines the principle of the ‘parasol’ with a monumental verandah as a response to the hot climate of the region. In 1962 Doshi was instrumental in arranging for Louis Kahn to work in India, and he was greatly influenced by Kahn’s use of light, geometry and structure. Another important work of the 1960s was the first phase of the Ahmadabad School of Architecture (...

Article

Betzy Dinesen

(b Whetstone, London, Dec 3, 1843; d Shanklin, Isle of Wight, Dec 26, 1924).

English architect. He trained first under William Habershon (1818–92) and Alfred Pite (1832–1911) and then under William Burges. He went to India in 1864 with Burges’s drawings for a new building for the School of Art in Bombay, but in the event they were too expensive to use. His own family connections secured him work in India, where he designed the Crawford Markets (1865–71), Bombay. His church (1870–73) at Girgaum, near Bombay, is in a French Gothic style. His other work in India in this period includes Allahabad Cathedral (1871–1929), in a Gothic Revival style, and Muir College (1872–8), also in Allahabad, combining Gothic and Saracenic elements. On his return to England he won the first competition (later abandoned) for Liverpool Cathedral in 1886 and designed the church of SS Mary and James (1887), Brighton, the Clarence Wing (...

Article

H. I. R. Hinzler

(b Ambon, Indonesia, June 23, 1874; d Laren, Netherlands, May 7, 1958).

Dutch archaeologist. Educated in the Netherlands, he trained for the Civil Engineering Corps in Breda (1892–6) and left as an officer for the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) to design fortifications. As an accomplished painter he was interested in ancient monuments and became a member of the Borobudur Commission in 1900, completing a survey and technical drawings for a preservation report (1902) on this early 9th-century Central Javanese Buddhist monument. Thereafter van Erp’s name remained closely associated with Borobudur, which was restored for the first time between 1907 and 1911. Meanwhile he worked on many other restoration projects and wrote numerous illustrated reports on monuments in Java and Bali for the Archaeological Survey. He returned to the Netherlands in 1912 and continued publishing after his retirement in 1918. His major achievement was the architectural description of Borobudur published in 1931.

Bouwkundige beschrijving [Architectural description] (1931), ii of ...

Article

Gensler  

Sara Stevens

American architectural firm started by Arthur Gensler Drue Gensler, and Jim Follett in 1965 in San Francisco, CA. M. Arthur Gensler jr (b Brooklyn, New York, 1935) attended Cornell University to study architecture (BArch, 1957). The firm began doing build-outs for retail stores and corporate offices, and initially established itself in the unglamorous area of interior architecture. Thirty years later and without mergers or acquisitions, it had grown to become one of the largest architecture firms in the world, having pioneered the global consultancy firm specializing in coordinated rollouts of multi-site building programmes. By 2012 the firm had over 3000 employees in over 40 offices. From the beginning, Art Gensler conceived of a global firm with multiple offices serving corporate clients whose businesses were becoming more international. Instead of the ‘starchitect’ model of his contemporaries such as I. M. Pei or Paul Rudolph, Gensler wanted an ego-free office that existed to serve client needs, not pursue a designer’s aesthetic agenda at the client’s expense. By adopting new web-based computing technologies and integrated design software in the early 1990s, the firm stayed well connected across their many offices and were more able than their competitors to manage large multi-site projects. Expanding from the services a traditional architecture firm offers, the company pushed into new areas well suited to their information technology and interiors expertise, such as organizational design, project management, and strategic facilities planning....

Article

Philip Davies

(b 1881; d Delhi, Jan 7, 1962).

English architect, active in India. Born of a family of Quaker architects, he was brought up in East Anglia and Manchester, where he worked in the family office. He studied under A. Beresford Pite and W. R. Lethaby at the Royal College of Art, London, and won the Soane Scholarship in 1906. In 1906–11 he was associated with the British School at Athens and participated in several excavations. In 1913 he published a monograph, The Church of St Eirene at Constantinople.

Having lost an eye in his youth, George was not accepted for service in World War I. In 1915 he went as Herbert Baker’s representative to New Delhi, where he designed a number of houses, St Stephen’s College, and St Thomas’s Church (1930–31), Paharganj. In 1923 he went into private practice. Major commissions included the reconstruction of Maiden’s Hotel in Delhi and the design of the Council Chamber at Simla. He worked extensively at Mandi, Nabba and Jodhpur. He was responsible for the layout of the garden at the British Residency at Kabul and several houses for the rulers of Jhind, Mandi and Bahawalpur at New Delhi. He remained in India after its independence in ...

Article

Rory Spence

American architects and designers, also active in Australia and India. Marion Mahony Griffin (née Mahony) (b Chicago, 14 Feb 1871; d Chicago, 10 Aug 1961) worked together with her husband Walter Burley Griffin (b Maywood, IL, 24 Nov 1876; d Lucknow, 11 Feb 1937) after their marriage in 1911. She was the second woman to graduate in architecture (1894) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, and worked for Dwight Perkins (1867–1941) before joining Frank Lloyd Wright’s studio in 1895. There she produced many of the perspective drawings for Wright’s designs, including several of those used for the influential Wasmuth portfolio Ausgeführte Bauten und Entwürfe von Frank Lloyd Wright (Berlin, 1910), which are among the finest architectural drawings of the 20th century. After Wright’s departure from Chicago in 1909, she assisted Hermann von Holst, who took over his practice. In Wright’s studio she also met Walter Burley Griffin, who had studied architecture (...

Article

Anis Farooqi

(b Jhelum, West Punjab [now in Pakistan], Dec 25, 1925).

Indian painter, sculptor, printmaker and architect. Totally deaf from the age of 13, he studied painting at the Mayo School of Art, Lahore, from 1939 to 1944, and then at the Sir Jamshetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art, Bombay, from 1944 to 1947. After independence and the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947, he pursued his artistic career in India and for several years expressed in his work the anguish of the partition. From 1952 to 1954 he studied at the Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, and from 1953 to 1954 worked under David Alfaro Siqueiros on murals in University City, MI. He was also influenced by the work of the Mexican artist José Clemente Orozco, especially by his use of large forms and his treatment of human anatomy. In his paintings of this period, such as Despair (1954; oil, 0.9×0.9 m; New Delhi, N.G. Mod. A.) and ...

Article

(b Peshawar, Oct 25, 1926).

Pakistani painter and sculptor. He began painting while training as an engineer in the USA (Columbia and Harvard universities) and held his first exhibition in 1950. He continued to paint while secretary at the Pakistan embassy at Ottawa during the 1950s, developing a reputation for portraiture. In 1957 he was commissioned to paint the portrait of King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan, and in 1959 he held an exhibition of 151 paintings and sketches in Kabul. He also painted portraits of Prince Karim Aga Khan (1961), Zhou Enlai (1964), Queen Farah Diba of Iran (1965) and President Ayub Khan of Pakistan (1968). He then turned to making portraits from marble mosaic and semi-precious stones, a technique that he had developed in Kabul in 1959. His abstract paintings, produced since the 1960s, incorporate ornamental calligraphy, coloured beads, small pieces of mirror, and gold and silver leaf. These works include a large abstract mural painted in ...

Article

Philip Davies

(b Jan 14, 1841; d Weybridge, Dec 4, 1917).

English engineer, architect and writer, active in India. He was educated at Cheam and then at the East India Company Military College at Addiscombe where he was one of the last batch of graduates. He entered the Bombay Artillery in 1858, qualifying five years later as a surveyor and engineer. After initial service in the Public Works Department, and a brief spell with the Aden Field Force in 1865–6, he was appointed Chief Engineer to Jaipur state where he spent his entire working life.

An extremely prolific engineer and architect, he was responsible for a large number of important irrigation schemes but was also a pioneer and one of the most accomplished exponents of eclectic ‘Indo-Saracenic’ architecture. His Jeypore Portfolio of Architectural Details (1890), published for the Maharajah, is a vast, scholarly compendium of architectural details of north Indian buildings that became a recognized pattern book and standard reference work. His principal works include the Anglican church (...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Bangkok, March 30, 1939).

Thai architect, theoretician and writer. He studied at the University of Cambridge (MA and DipArch, 1963), receiving a number of student awards including the Brancusi Travelling Fund, Breezewood Foundation Scholarship and John D. Rockefeller Fund scholarship. He also received a PhD in architectural studies from Cambridge in 1967. From 1965 to 1969 he worked as an architect for the Thailand Department of Town and Country Planning in Bangkok, and in 1969 he went into private practice there. One of the most intellectual architects in South-east Asia, Jumsai was influenced by Le Corbusier, Colin Rowe and Buckminster Fuller, and he applied contemporary European forms and technical innovations to buildings designed within the Thai context. Between 1969 and 1982, when this modernist expression was prevalent, his office, SJA 3D Co. Ltd, was responsible for over one hundred design and planning projects ranging from residences to office buildings, industrial plants and economic feasibility studies. During this period 62 factories were designed and built, the largest being the Nissan Car Assembly Plant (...

Article

Kalna  

Walter Smith

Town and temple site in West Bengal, India, about 80 km north of Calcutta. Located on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, it was once an important port and commercial centre, but by the late 19th century its importance had declined owing to the silting up of the river and the opening of the East Indian Railway. It is now best known for several temples built during the 18th and 19th centuries by wealthy landowners, merchants and officers of local governors. Many are dated by inscription. Built of brick, they are decorated with dense arrangements of terracotta reliefs depicting scenes from the Rāmāya ṇa, the Krishna legend and scenes of everyday life, including figures in European dress. A variety of temple types are seen; the most common have squat, curvilinear superstructures, sometimes double-storey, or upper levels consisting of several towers (see Indian subcontinent §III 7., (ii), (d)). The Lalji Temple (...