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Amy Meyers

(Laforest) [Fougère, Jean-Jacques]

(b Les Cayes, Santo Domingo [now Haiti], April 26, 1785; d New York state, Jan 27, 1851).

American Naturalist, painter and draughtsman of French –Creole descent. Brought up in a French village near Nantes, he developed an interest in art and natural science, encouraged by his father and the naturalist Alcide Dessaline d’Orbigny. He is thought to have moved to Paris by 1802 to pursue formal art training; although the evidence is inconclusive, Audubon claimed to have studied in the studio of Jacques-Louis David.

In 1803 Audubon travelled to the USA to oversee Mill Grove, an estate owned by his father on the outskirts of Philadelphia, PA. Uninterested in practical affairs, he spent his time hunting and drawing birds. His drawings (many in Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) from this period are executed primarily in pencil and pastel. They are conventional specimen drawings that define individual birds in stiff profile with little or no background. A number of these works, however, bear notations from Mark Catesby’s ...


Margarita González Arredondo

(b Calgary, Dec 9, 1930; d Mexico City, July 12, 1992).

Canadian painter, draughtsman and sculptor, active in Mexico. After studying in Canada at the Vancouver School of Art (1944–5) and Banff School of Fine Arts (1947–8) he moved to Mexico City, where he continued his training at the Escuela de Pintura y Escultura La Esmeralda (1948–9) and from 1950 worked as one of a team of assistants to David Alfaro Siqueiros. He began soon after to produce murals, such as The People Don’t Want War (acrylic, 2×2.5 m, 1952; Mexico City, Inst. Poli. N.) and Scenes from Don Quixote (acrylic on concrete, 1957; Cuernavaca), following these with many others in Mexico, the USA, Canada, Cuba and Nicaragua. He was also prolific as a draughtsman and easel painter, often working on a large scale, and to a lesser extent as a sculptor. Working in an Expressionist style and concentrating his attention on the human figure—sometimes contorted, flayed or treated in a robot-like manner—he treated biblical themes as well as more contemporary subjects such as the victims of Nazism or of the bombing of Hiroshima. In ...


(Mariaca )

(b La Paz, 1919; d New York, 1982).

Bolivian painter, also active in the USA. She studied art with her father, Julio Mariaca Pando, an architect, and at the Academia de Bellas Artes in La Paz, under Cecilio Guzmán de Rojas and Jorge de la Reza. Between 1948 and 1950 she worked on the newspaper La Razón as an illustrator and taught at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes. Between 1950 and 1952 Pacheco studied in Spain under Daniel Vázquez Díaz and at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid. On her return from Spain she worked in La Paz until 1956, at which time she separated from her husband, Victor Pacheco, and moved with her two children to New York, where she settled. She was awarded three Guggenheim Fellowships. Her painting began within the framework of native realism but towards the end of the 1940s began incorporating other strains. After she settled in New York her paintings became totally abstract and expressive, influenced by ...