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(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

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Library  

Virginia M. Kerr, Colum Hourihane and Godfrey Thompson

Building for storage of and access to texts. Over time the format of texts has changed, from papyrus rolls and cuneiform tablets, to codices, to printed books, to microforms, and the technology of storage and the notion of ‘access’ have also changed significantly. Library buildings in turn have evolved.

Libraries have often hosted other activities, including lectures and the display of art and artefacts. These roles extend back to the Hellenistic period (323–31 bc), were revived in the Renaissance and Baroque libraries of Europe, and have found new emphasis in the 20th century.

Libraries also have performed important symbolic roles: they preserve knowledge, inspire scholars, and measure cultural achievement for institutions or entire nations; they also provide an opportunity for enlightened patronage. These symbolic functions have been expressed in various furnishings: for example, gates and chains protect medieval bookcases; allegorical motifs or emblems serve to glorify the arts and sciences; authors’ portraits may inspire readers; and donors’ portraits immortalize their dedication to literature....