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Gerald W. R. Ward

(b Boston, MA, Jan 5, 1656; d Boston, Aug 20, 1722).

American silversmith, goldsmith and engraver. The son of a cooper, Coney probably served his apprenticeship with Jeremiah Dummer (1645–1718) of Boston. Coney may have engraved the plates for the first banknotes printed in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1690 and certainly engraved the plates for those issued in 1702. His patrons included important citizens of Boston, churches throughout New England, local societies and Harvard College. Active as a silversmith and goldsmith for 45 years, he produced objects in three distinct styles—that of the late 17th century (characterized by engraved and flat-chased ornament and scrollwork), the early Baroque and the late Baroque (or Queen Anne)—and introduced specialized forms to New England, for example the monteith and chocolatepot. Although derived directly from the English silversmithing tradition and thus not innovative in design, Coney’s work exhibits excellent craftsmanship in all technical aspects of gold- and silversmithing. Two lobed sugar-boxes (Boston, MA, Mus. F. A., and Manchester, NH, Currier Gal. A.), a large, gadrooned, two-handled cup (...

Article

Martine Reid

(b Masset, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC, Nov 4, 1946).

Native American Haida sculptor, metalworker, printmaker and blanket-maker. He was the grandson of the Haida blanket- and basket-maker Florence Davidson (1895–1993), and great-grandson of the Haida wood-carver Charles Edenshaw. He began carving argillite as a teenager in Masset, and in 1966 he met Bill Reid, who offered him workshop space in Vancouver. There Davidson developed new carving skills and learnt the fundamentals of the two-dimensional (‘formline’) designs used by the Haida and other tribes of the northern Northwest Coast (see Native North American art, §III, 2). In 1969 he returned to Masset to carve a 12.2 m-high totem pole, the first heraldic column to be raised on the Queen Charlotte Islands since the end of the 19th century. In 1987 Davidson and his crew produced a set of three totem poles entitled Three Variations on Killer Whale Myths for the Pepsicola Sculptural Garden in Purchase, NY. In these totem poles Davidson worked within the strict conventions of the Haida style, refining it by introducing subtle variations in design but preserving a degree of conservative austerity in which movement and individual expression are sacrificed to overall unity of form. In his early work in silver Davidson used flat patterns influenced by Edenshaw, and he went on to develop these into an innovative style of his own in screenprints, silver and bronze. Davidson’s younger brother, ...

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Cheshire, CT, 1754; d New Haven, CT, Jan 31, 1832).

American engraver. Doolittle learnt to engrave in metal through his apprenticeship to a silversmith. His career as an independent craftsman was interrupted by army service during the American Revolution, during which time he met Ralph Earl, whose drawings of battle scenes, including the battles of Lexington and Concord, Doolittle was later to engrave on copper. The success of these historical scenes, for example A View of the Town of Concord, published in New Haven in 1775, enabled Doolittle to abandon his trade as a silversmith. Responding to patriotic demand for images of the new American leaders, Doolittle engraved likenesses of successive American presidents, including George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. The tribute to Washington he first issued in 1788, A Display of the United States of America (1794; New Haven, CT, Yale U. A.G.), was reworked five times. He also engraved book illustrations, scenic views, and bookplates. Although not the first engraver in America, as he was later to claim, Doolittle was the only one of his generation to attempt to expand beyond service work to original compositions on a regular basis....

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Cheshire, CT, April 1, 1755; d Newark, NJ, Dec 12, 1811).

American silversmith and engraver. After training as a silversmith, he responded to the growing demand for copperplate-engraving by launching his own business in Newark in the 1770s, advertising in the New York and New Jersey newspapers as an engraver of tea sets and as a copperplate printer. Engraving bookplates, broadsides and occasional portraits provided his staple income; in later years, after American Independence, he was also able to meet the demand of nascent banks for individualized, intricately designed banknotes to counter forgery. Although the ephemeral nature of his work makes it difficult to evaluate his talent within the broader context of contemporary engraving, he achieved sufficient status to be elected as the representative of the Engravers’ Association to the Federal Procession of 1788. Three of his sons, Samuel Maverick, Andrew Maverick and the best-known, Peter Maverick (1780–1871), also became printmakers. The last established a partnership with Asher B. Durand between ...

Article

Martine Reid

(b Victoria, BC, 1920; d Vancouver, BC, March 13, 1998).

Native Canadian Haida metalsmith, carver and printmaker. He was the son of a German–Scots–American father and a Haida mother, and grew up in British Columbia. From 1948 to 1950 he studied goldsmithing at Ryerson Institute of Technology in Toronto, and was subsequently apprenticed at the Platinum Art Company of Toronto. He then moved to Vancouver, where he established a jewellery workshop. His motivation to acquire skills as a goldsmith stemmed from his interest in the bracelet-making of his maternal forebears, the Haida of Queen Charlotte Islands, and he was particularly inspired by Charles Gladstone, his grandfather, and other relatives such as John Cross and Charles Edenshaw. Reid expanded the tradition by applying his knowledge of and skills in European jewellery techniques, while at the same time studying, analysing and discovering the structure of ancient Haida pieces in museums. His research led to recognition as an authority on Haida design and as an important link between traditional Haida culture and mainstream 20th-century art. In ...

Article

Carey Rote

(b Boston, MA, Jan 1, 1735; d Boston, May 10, 1818).

American silversmith, engraver and metalworker. He was trained as a silversmith by his father, Apollos Rivoire (1702–54), who anglicized his name to Paul Revere in 1730. After his father’s death, Revere took over the family silver business. He was an active participant in the American Revolution (1775–83). As a member of the Sons of Liberty, he acted as a courier, taking dispatches from Boston to the other colonies, a role described in Henry W. Longfellow’s poem The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere (1860). By 1764 Revere had begun working in copper-engraving, creating portraits, cartoons and advertisements. He is best known for his engravings of political events of the American Revolutionary War, for example the Landing of the Troops (1768; see exh. cat., p. 120, pl. 155) and the Boston Massacre (1770; see Brown and others, p. 92, pl. 110). The latter is similar to an engraving by Henry Pelham (...