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Ruth Rosengarten

(António Teixeira Bastos Nunes)

(b Lisbon, Sept 18, 1899; d Lisbon, Aug 18, 1982).

Portuguese painter, printmaker and designer of tapestries and tile panels. Known primarily as a ‘painter of Lisbon’, he began his artistic career as an illustrator and cartoonist as well as writing a weekly satirical page (1928–50) in the newspaper O sempre fixe. He visited Paris in 1929, 1930–1 and again in 1937, when he was impressed by a retrospective exhibition of the work of van Gogh, whose influence is evident in Botelho’s scenes of urban squalor of the late 1930s. He had begun to depict calm, unpopulated views of Lisbon in the early 1930s, for example Side View of the Castle (1935; Lisbon, Mus. Cidade), and from the early 1940s concentrated almost exclusively on this theme. The compositions became increasingly crisp and planar and the piling up of volumes and compression of space increasingly stylized, especially after he began to paint from memory in 1949. The tonalities of Botelho’s paintings remained consistently pale, as in ...

Article

Fani-Maria Tsigakou

(b Athens, May 23, 1882; d Athens, March 20, 1966).

French illustrator, printmaker and designer of Greek birth. At a very early age he showed a talent for drawing and soon took to drawing cartoons. He studied mathematics for two years at the National Technical University in Athens, but he finally enrolled at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Athens, where he studied under Nikiforos Lytras. In 1899, when he was still a student, he won first prize in a competition for cartoons run by the Paris newspaper Le Journal. Upon graduation he went to Paris on a scholarship and studied for some time at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Fernand Cormon. He continued to draw cartoons for the Greek magazines Pinakothiki and Panathinea; he also worked for the German periodicals Simplicissimus and Lustige Blätter, and on the strength of this was invited to go to Germany, where he stayed from 1907 to 1909.

In 1914 Galanis joined the Foreign Legion, took out French nationality and was transferred to an infantry regiment. In the course of his postings during World War I he was sent to Corfu in ...

Article

Judi Freeman

(b Argentan, Orne, Feb 4, 1881; d Gif-sur-Yvette, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 17, 1955).

French painter, draughtsman, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, and ceramicist. Among the most prominent artists in Paris in the first half of the 20th century, he was prolific in many media and articulated a consistent position on the role of art in society in his many lectures and writings. His mature work underwent many changes, from a Cubist-derived abstraction in the 1910s to a distinctive realist imagery in the 1950s. Léger attracted numerous students to his various schools, and his ideas and philosophy were disseminated by modern artists throughout Europe and the Americas.

Born in rural Normandy, Léger often said that he was of ‘peasant stock’. Although his father was a cattle merchant, Léger was sent by his family to Caen in 1897 to be an apprentice in an architect’s office, where he remained until 1899. In 1900 he went to Paris and again worked in an architect’s office as a draughtsman. After compulsory military service in ...