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Article

revised by Stephanie Spencer and Sophie Gordon

(b London, Aug 13, 1815; d London, May 15, 1894).

English printmaker and photographer. His first known works are architectural drawings exhibited at the Royal Academy in the 1840s, which documented buildings designed by his architect father Francis Octavius Bedford (1784–1858). He quickly turned to engraving, design, and lithography, working for Standidge & Co., and later Day & Son. He continued to produce lithographs until c. 1858, contributing to many significant publications on British design and manufacturing. He took up photography around 1853 initially to assist with the accuracy of his lithographic work, photographing works of art in the Marlborough House museum (later the South Kensington Museum) for Henry Cole. In 1854 he exhibited for the first time in the Photographic Society of London exhibition. Bedford continued to exhibit widely in British and international exhibitions throughout the 1850s and 1860s. He concentrated primarily on landscape and architectural scenes, often made during annual tours of southern England and Wales (...

Article

Antoine Terrasse

(b Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, Oct 3, 1867; d Le Cannet, Jan 27, 1947).

French painter, printmaker and photographer. He is known particularly for the decorative qualities of his paintings and his individual use of colour. During his life he was associated with other artists, Edouard Vuillard being a good friend, and he was a member of the Nabis.

Bonnard spent some of his childhood at Grand-Lemps in the Isère, where his family owned a house surrounded by a large park. There was a farm adjoining the house, and from an early age he developed a love of nature and animals. After obtaining the baccalauréat at 18, he enrolled in the Law faculty in order to please his father, who wanted him to have a steady job. He graduated when he was 21, and he was sworn in as a barrister in 1889. In the meantime he was already drawing and painting, having enrolled at the Académie Julian, Paris, in 1887. In an attractive ...

Article

Italo Zannier

(b Florence, April 6, 1822; d Florence, Nov 29, 1881).

Italian photographer and engraver. He began c. 1855 to deal in photographic prints, after working for some years as a copper engraver with the engraver (and later photographer) Achille Paris (1820–84). Brogi had also worked with the print publisher Batelli from the age of 11, and as the copper engraver and publisher Giuseppe Bardi’s print retoucher. He also attended, on a private basis, the school run by the engraver Perfetti. He probably learnt photography from the scientist Tito Puliti, whose photographic work at the Istituto di Fisica of the university from 1839 had pioneered the medium in Florence.

In 1860 Brogi set up his own photographic laboratory at Lungarno delle Grazie 15. He concentrated mainly on portraits, competing with the Alinari family whose studio was already flourishing but was devoted mainly to the reproduction of works of art, a field in which Brogi was less interested. He successfully exhibited a series of ‘natural and coloured artistic photographs’ at the first Esposizione Italiana, Agraria, Industriale, Artistica held in Florence in ...

Article

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...

Article

Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...

Article

Nancy E. Green

(b Ipswich, MA, April 6, 1857; d New York, NY, Dec 13, 1922).

American painter, printmaker, photographer, writer and teacher. Dow took art classes in the Boston studio of James M. Stone, where he met Frank Duveneck, who would remain a lifelong friend. He went to Paris in 1884 to study at the Académie Julian with Jules(-Joseph) Lefebvre and Gustave(-Clarence-Rodolphe) Boulanger. Dow also took evening classes at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, where the American artist Francis D. Millet (1846–1912) offered critiques of the students’ work. Dow then spent some time in Pont-Aven, where he met Paul Gauguin and Emile Bernard, and in Concarneau where he sought out the advice of American painter Alexander Harrison (1853–1930). Dow’s painting Au Soir won an honorable mention at the Universal Exposition in 1889 and two of his paintings were accepted that same year for the Paris Salon and were hung on the line (i.e. at eye-level).

Dow returned to Boston where he began independent studies at the Boston Public Library that led him to the work of Japanese artists ...

Article

(Seraph)

(b Baiernrain bei Bad Tölz, March 1, 1804; d Munich, April 18, 1877).

German lithographer and photographer. In 1816 he moved to Munich, where he studied drawing under the German sculptor Peter Schöpf (1757–1841) at the Polytechnische Schule and lithography under the German lithographer Hermann Josef Mitterer (1764–1829) at the Feiertagschule. From 1819 to 1825 he attended the Akademie der Künste in Munich. Acquiring a great mastery of lithography, he then worked as a portrait lithographer, producing works such as Otto I, King of Greece (1832; Vienna, Österreich. Nbib.). In 1833 he set up his own lithographic publishing house in Munich and the following year travelled to Paris to study under the lithographer Joseph Lemercier. In 1835 he was one of a number of artists commissioned by the government to provide lithographic reproductions of the paintings in the Königliche Gemäldegalerie in Dresden. Hanfstaengl in fact made the majority of these, 134 out of 195 being from his hand. The resulting prints were collected as ...

Article

David Rodgers

(b 1837; d London, Nov 21, 1933).

English engraver and photographer. He began his career as a mezzotint-engraver, reproducing two works by Edwin Henry Landseer, the Shepherd’s Grave and the Old Shepherd’s Chief Mourner (both London, V&A), both published by J. McQueen in 1869. In the early 1870s he was employed by Frederic Leighton to photograph paintings and drawings, which he carried out with exemplary skill. Under Leighton’s patronage his clients soon included Edward Burne-Jones, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and G. F. Watts and he established himself as the leading specialist in the photographic reproduction of paintings in England. His reproductions, which sold widely in Britain and Europe, did much to popularize the artists’ works. He was also a gifted portrait photographer and devoted one day a week to sitters from artistic and literary circles, producing photographs of Camille Pissarro, Walter Pater and John Ruskin.

O. Mathews: Early Photographs and Early Photographers (London, 1973) T. Browne and E. Parton...

Article

Daniela Mrázková

[Karl]

(b Hostinné [Ger. Arnau], Bohemia [now Czech Republic], May 30, 1841; d Vienna, Nov 16, 1926).

Czech printmaker, draughtsman, photographer and inventor. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (1856–60) but, because of his anti-German and anti-Austrian views, he had to interrupt his studies several times to escape prosecution by the authorities. In 1863 he opened his own lithography workshop in Prague and one year later founded a prosperous photographic studio in Brno together with his father. Klíč was a skilled draughtsman and he gained considerable popularity as a caricaturist, first in Budapest (1868) and later in Vienna (1869). He contributed to the magazines Borszem Jankó (Budapest), Der Floh (Vienna) and Puck (London), and he founded the magazines Veselé Listy (Brno) and Humoristische Blätter (Vienna). His ironic, biting full-page drawings place him among the great representatives of European caricature of his time. However, his worldwide reputation had its source in his contribution to printing technology.

From 1876...

Article

G. Lola Worthington

(b San Francisco, CA, Oct 5, 1937).

Native American (Maidu–Wintu) painter, printmaker, photographer, writer, educator, traditional dancer and poet. LaPena, also known as Tauhindauli, spent time with the Nomtipom Wintu and other regional neighboring elders to conserve and regain traditional cultural practices. He was taught traditional tribal songs, dances and ceremonial rituals of Northern California Native American culture that inspired his interest in reviving and preserving Northern California tribal culture and accompanying performance arts. His work, along with Frank Day (1902–76), a late Maidu elder and painter, aided the founding of the Maidu Dancers and Traditionalists, a group dedicated to carrying out traditional cultural forms and social practices. Earning his bachelor’s degree from California State University (CSU), Chico (1965), and an Anthropology Masters of Arts degree from CSU, Sacramento (1978), he taught for the next 30 years in the CSU, Sacramento American Indian Studies program.

For LaPena, his art was a spiritual act, which empowers the maker with an opportunity to achieve a stronger sense of understanding life. Inspired by prehistoric rock painting, some painted images are depicted in total abstraction, while others illustrate a narrative theme. His strong consciousness of his Californian Native American heritage is distinctive and many themes in his compositions provide a powerful commentary in their depiction of the struggles of Northern California Native Americans; “To let the world know what happened in California, and to the indigenous populations points out that survival issues are still of great concern.” His paintings and prints reached a popular acceptance. LaPena exhibited throughout the United States and internationally at the Wheelwright Museum, Santa Fe, NM, the Chicago Art Institute, the San Francisco Museum, the Linder Museum, Stuttgart, the American Arts Gallery, New York, the George G. Heye Center of the Smithsonian, New York, and numerous galleries. In ...

Article

Eugenia Parry Janis

(b Paris, Aug 18, 1818; d Paris, Dec 26, 1882).

French photographer, painter, printmaker, and collector. After studying with the sculptor James Pradier and the painters Jean-Pierre Granger (1779–1840) and Paul Delaroche, he made his début at the Salon of 1842, winning a third-class medal there in 1845. He turned to photography in the wave of self-enrichment preceding the 1848 Revolution. With Charles Nègre he experimented with the waxed paper negative process of (Jean-Baptiste-)Gustave Le Gray, from whom he probably received personal instruction before 1850. Unlike other photographers, who later adopted glass negatives, Le Secq continued to use paper, at first employing photographs as studies for his genre paintings.

By 1851 Le Secq excelled at rendering ancient and medieval monuments in a pictorial style that exploited the effects of light and shadow, turning architecture into symbolic fragments evoking a rapidly disappearing historical past, which Le Secq sought to save photographically. After helping found the Société Héliographique in 1851...

Article

Geoffrey Belknap

(b Paris, c. 1816; d New Orleans, LA, Jan 9, 1866).

African American lithographer, daguerreotypist, and painter of French birth. Lion was born in Paris and trained as an artist in France before moving to the United States in 1837. He is noted as the first African American to adopt the daguerreotype method, and one of the first daguerreotypists active in the United States. For much of his life, Lion resided in New Orleans and operated his photographic studios in the city. He was active as a photographer for a relatively short period of time—between 1840 and 1845—and because of this only a small number of his views of New Orleans streets remain, primarily in the form of lithographic prints made from daguerreotypes (now presumed lost). In addition to making his lithographic copies, Lion gained notoriety in New Orleans for offering lectures and exhibitions of the daguerreotype process following the announcement of its invention. After leaving photography behind in 1845...

Article

(b Venice, 1809; d Paris, 1875).

French printmaker and photographer. Of German origin, he lived most of his life in Paris and exhibited prints of city scenes and seascapes at the Salon from 1834 to 1848. Among his views of cities were those of Koblenz, Cologne, Frankfurt, Lausanne, Le Havre, Mainz, Orléans, Paris, Rouen, Stuttgart, Trieste and Venice. In 1845 he invented the first panoramic camera, called the Megaskop-Kamera or Panorama-Kamera, which used curved daguerreotype plates and had a visual angle of 150°. The lens was rotated to scan the desired scene; a curved plate was essential to minimize aberration, but made development of the plates difficult. Nevertheless he managed to produce a number of high quality panoramas, such as Panoramic View of Paris from the Louvre (1847; Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). He gave a detailed account of his invention to the Académie des Sciences in Paris in June 1845. In 1851 he exhibited at the Great Exhibition in London a number of albumen prints of architectural views, for which he was awarded the Council Medal. In the early 1850s he took a number of panoramic views of the Alps using talbotypes instead of daguerreotypes. One of these taken of Mont Blanc, in 14 parts, was exhibited at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in ...

Article

Louis Kaplan

(Howard)

(b Boston, MA, May 1832; d Boston, MA, May 16, 1884).

American engraver, spirit photographer, and inventor. Mumler worked first as an engraver in the jewellery firm of Bigelow, Kennard, and Co. before taking up photography. In 1862, he claimed to have developed a haunted photographic self-portrait that contained the ‘spirit’ of a deceased female cousin, even though a more naturalistic explanation viewed it as a double exposure produced on an already used plate. Working with his wife Hannah, who was a clairvoyant and medium, Mumler went into business producing such spirit photographs as cartes-de-visite for the bereaved and the curious on a full-time basis.

The success of Mumler’s spirit photography must be understood in relation to the growth of Spiritualism as a popular religious movement and the belief that communication with the dead was possible. For Spiritualist leaders such as Andrew Jackson Davis (1826–1910), Mumler’s images offered visible proof of a new medium for spirit communication and communion. However, Mumler left Boston amid scandal when a few of the spirits in his photographs were found to still be alive. Relocating to New York in the late 1860s, he opened a studio at 630 Broadway....

Article

Nadar  

Hélène Bocard

[Tournachon , (Gaspard ) Félix ]

(b Paris, April 8, 1820; d Paris, March 21, 1910).

French photographer, printmaker, draughtsman, writer and balloonist. He was born into a family of printers and became familiar with the world of letters very early in life. He abandoned his study of medicine for journalism, working first in Lyon and then in Paris. In the 1840s Nadar moved in socialist, bohemian circles and developed strong republican convictions. Around this time he adopted the pseudonym Nadar (from ‘Tourne à dard’, a nickname he gained because of his talent for caricature). For his friend Charles Baudelaire (see fig.), Nadar personified ‘the most astonishing expression of vitality’. In 1845 he published his first novel, La Robe de Déjanira, and the following year he embarked on his career as a caricaturist, working for La Silhouette and Le Charivari and subsequently for the Revue comique (1848) and Charles Philipon’s Journal pour rire (1849), which later became the Journal amusant...

Article

(b Hobart, Aug 27, 1836; d Sydney, July 17, 1914).

Australian painter, printmaker and photographer of French descent. He studied painting at Cambridge House in Hobart, where he won the prize for drawing in 1849. Between 1850 and 1872 he worked as a draughtsman for the Tasmanian Survey Office, receiving additional instruction in art from Frank Dunnett (1822–91), a retired Scottish painter and engraver. In the mid-1860s he began exhibiting his paintings and made his first lithographed views, mostly of the River Derwent and its environs. In 1870 he received a bronze medal for his photographs at the Intercolonial Exhibition in Sydney. In 1872 he left his job and became Australia’s first native-born professional painter and a major artist working in the 19th-century Romantic landscape tradition, capturing the form and spirit of the vast Australian landscape. He spent much of the 1870s accompanying organized expeditions into the central and south-western wilderness of Tasmania in search of compelling subjects to paint. In ...

Article

Janda Gooding

(b Melbourne, Aug 31, 1861; d Melbourne, Sept 4, 1946).

Australian painter, printmaker and curator, who worked mostly in Western Australia. While working in the photographic trade, Pitt Morison studied part time (1881–9) at the National Gallery School in Melbourne. He formed a friendship with the artist Tom Humphrey (1858–1922) and soon after he became associated with, and exhibited with, a group that included Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton. The group, later known as the Heidelberg school, painted en plein air in the outer suburbs of Melbourne, around Box Hill and Heidelberg, experimenting with new theories of light and colour derived from the French Impressionists. Pitt Morison travelled to Europe in 1890 and studied at the Académie Julian in Paris under Jules Lefebvre and William Bouguereau..

Pitt Morison was forced to return to Australia in 1893, due to the collapse of Victorian banks and the subsequent loss of his income. A job in the photographic trade in Bunbury offered him an opportunity to move and he arrived in Western Australia in ...

Article

(b Dijon, July 1842 or 1843; d Auvers-sur-Oise, Val d’Oise, June 8, 1888).

French painter and printmaker. After a rudimentary education he was employed by his brother-in-law, a photographer, to retouch negatives. He then moved to Paris where he supported himself by working as a photographer while training at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Isidore-Alexandre-Augustin Pils. In Paris he became friendly with Emile Boilvin and also came to know Philippe Burty, Félix Bracquemond and Louis-Charles-Auguste Steinheil. Though he studied painting he also learnt to etch under Léon Gaucherel and Léopold Flameng and decided to devote himself to etching. He made his début at the Salon in 1865 with a drawing, but from 1868 he exhibited only etchings. His works, which were mainly reproductions of paintings by contemporary artists or by Old Masters such as Gainsborough, Rembrandt and Rubens, appeared in the journals L’Art and Gazette des beaux-arts and were also published by Galeries Goupil. He also produced original portrait etchings of contemporary writers including Turgenev, Tennyson and Théophile Gautier. In ...

Article

James G. Todd jr

Term used to refer to the work of painters, printmakers, photographers and film makers who draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working classes and the poor, and who are critical of the social structures that maintain these conditions. In general it should not be confused with Socialist Realism, the official art form of the USSR, which was institutionalized by Joseph Stalin in 1934, and later by allied Communist parties worldwide. Social realism, in contrast, represents a democratic tradition of independent socially motivated artists, usually of left-wing or liberal persuasion. Their preoccupation with the conditions of the lower classes was a result of the democratic movements of the 18th and 19th centuries, so social realism in its fullest sense should be seen as an international phenomenon, despite the term’s frequent association with American painting. While the artistic style of social realism varies from nation to nation, it almost always utilizes a form of descriptive or critical realism (e.g. the work in 19th-century Russia of the ...

Article

(b Cluj, Jan 11, 1812; d Bucharest, June 3, 1887).

Romanian painter, lithographer and photographer. He studied drawing at the Reformed College and the Catholic Lyceum in Cluj (1819–27) before moving to study in Vienna. In 1831–7 he made watercolours of views in Wallachia and Moldavia (Bucharest, Roman. Acad. Lib.) and later published lithographs of landscapes from Transylvania in the album Erdely Kepben (Cluj, 1843). He travelled in Germany (1835) and in Italy and France (1836–40) and was subsequently employed by the princes of Wallachia, Alexandru Dimitrie Ghica (reg 1834–42) and Gheorghe Bibescu (reg 1842–8), to sketch official ceremonies. He also painted several portraits of Princess Maria Bibescu in peasant costume (c. 1845; Bucharest, N. Hist. Mus. Romania and Roman. Acad. Lib.). In 1850 he made his first voyage to the Middle East, visiting Baghdad, Chorsabad, Baalbek and Constantinople (now Istanbul), to which he returned in 1864, in the entourage of Alexander Couza, Prince of Romania (...