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Marta Gili

(b Valencia, May 17, 1907; d E. Berlin, Oct 11, 1982).

Spanish photomontagist and printmaker, active in Mexico and Germany. He studied painting at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Carlos in Valencia (1919–26), subsequently becoming a graphic designer and photomontagist (1928–39) in Valencia, Madrid, and Barcelona. In his printmaking, which was influenced by John Heartfield and by Socialist Realism, he showed a strong commitment to the Republican cause and a talent for satire, often expressed through the use of colourful popular imagery. When the Spanish Civil War ended in 1939 he went into exile in Mexico, where he executed a series of photomontages entitled The American Way of Life (1949–66), in which he denounced American imperialism and capitalism. In 1958 he moved permanently to East Berlin, where he executed the series Fata Morgana U.S.A.

Fata Morgana U.S.A. (1967)The American Way of Life (Barcelona, 1977)Naggar, C. “The Photomontages of Josep Renau.” ...


James Crump

(b Elberfeld [now Wuppertal-Elberfeld], May 9, 1904; d Buenos Aires, Dec 24, 1999).

German photographer and designer, active in Argentina. After studying (1923–1925) graphic design at the Technische Hochschule, Stuttgart, she became active in advertising and layout design. Around 1927 she met the Bauhaus photographer Walter Peterhans (1897–1960). While studying with him in 1927–1928 and completing his Bauhaus course in 1930, her work was informed by Surrealism and Constructivism and by what László Moholy-Nagy called the “new vision” or the problems of an increasingly urban, mechanical age. In 1929 Stern established a studio in Berlin called Foto Ringl + Pit (Ringle + Pit), with fellow photographer Ellen Auerbach. It was active mainly between 1929 and 1933 and became noted for its innovative advertising work. In 1933 Stern fled Germany and opened a studio in London, where she was active until 1937. Her production during these years is marked by her portraits of Bertolt Brecht and Helene Weigel and original works for ...