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Article

Barbara Lange

revised by Andrés Mario Zervigón

[Herzfeld, Helmut ]

(b Berlin, June 19, 1891; d Berlin, April 26, 1968).

German photomontagist, draughtsman, typographer, stage designer, and film director. After a difficult childhood owing to the persecution of his father for his political beliefs, he studied art at the Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich from 1907 to 1911, specializing in advertising art. In 1912 he took his first job in a paper packaging company (for which he completed graphic design work) in Mannheim, moving to Berlin in 1913, where he and his brother Wieland Herzfeld made contact with avant-garde circles. (Wieland changed his surname to Herzfelde in early 1914.) Heartfield’s experiences in World War I led him to conclude that the only worthy art was that which took account of social realities (see Eclipse of the Sun on the Rhine, 1957). He destroyed all his early work.

From 1916 Heartfield collaborated closely with George Grosz and in the summer of 1917, like Grosz, anglicized his name, although he did not adopt this form officially until after the war. His earnest criticism of bourgeois society found its expression in his commitment to the ...

Article

Diane Kirkpatrick

Image with the illusion of three-dimensionality, recorded on light-sensitive plates, paper or film. It is made by using a laser beam of high-intensity coherent monochromatic light. The original holographic process was discovered in the late 1940s by the British scientist Dennis Gabor (1900–77), who gave it its name; deriving from the Greek words holos (‘whole, entire’) and gramma (‘picture’). The medium was developed only after the invention of the laser in 1960. After that, many scientists joined in perfecting variations of the process, which captured and stored all visible detail in a subject. By moving in front of a holographic plate, the viewer has the sensation of looking over and around holographed foreground objects.

Although holographic techniques differ in detail, the basic principle is to split the laser beam so that one part reflects light waves over the surfaces of the subject and from there towards a very fine-grain photosensitive surface. The second part of the reference beam comes unimpeded towards the photo-plate, where the interference pattern, made when the object waves interact with the light waves of the reference beam, is recorded. Early holograms were viewed by projecting a duplicate of the recording laser beam through the plate to reconstruct the original three-dimensional light image of the subject....

Article

April A. Eisman

(b Stargard, Pomerania, Jan 5, 1931; d Berlin, Germany, Sept 28, 1993).

East German graphic artist, painter, photographer, filmmaker, and action artist. He is best known as a pioneer of Correspondence art in East Germany. He studied graphic arts and painting at the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin-Charlottenburg (1948–53) under Alexander Camaro and Wolfgang Hoffmann. After graduating, he joined the Association of Visual Artists in East Germany and worked as an independent (freischaffende) artist in East Berlin.

In the 1950s, he began experimenting in a variety of media, including assemblage, collage, photography, Super 8 film, and visual poetry, together with his friends Ingo Kirchner and Hanfried Schulz. He also collaborated with Schulz on commissions for architectural art. During these years, his studio in East Berlin-Pankow became an important meeting place for experimental artists whose work did not fit the traditional media expected by the state. It was not until the mid 1970s that he was able to start exhibiting work within the East German system, in small but important galleries of experimental art such as the Galerie Arkade in Berlin in ...