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Article

Aurélie Verdier

(b Saïda, Algeria, 1953).

French painter, sculptor, photographer, film maker, writer and installation artist of Algerian birth. Born to Spanish parents, he was much affected by North African as well as Southern European culture. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre. Despite a pervasive and diverse use of media, Alberola often stressed the coexistence of his different artistic practices as leading to painting alone. His paintings relied heavily on evocative narratives, at once personal and ‘historical’. Alberola conceived of his role as a storyteller, on the model of African oral cultures. Convinced that narratives could not be renewed, he argued that a painter’s main task was to reactivate his work through contact with his pictorial heritage. The main points of reference for his paintings of the early 1980s were Velázquez, Manet or Matisse, whose works he quoted in a personal way. In the early 1980s he undertook a series of paintings inspired by mythological subjects, which he combined with his own history as the principal subject-matter of his work. The biblical story of Susannah and the Elders as well as the Greek myth of Actaeon provided his most enduring subjects, both referring to the act of looking as taboo, as in ...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b Nigeria, 1963).

Nigerian photographer, film maker, installation artist and writer active in Scotland. He studied Chemical Engineering at Strathclyde University, Glasgow (1981–85), before completing an MA in Media, Fine Art, Theory and Practice at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1996–8). Bamgboyé’s earliest work was photographic: The Lighthouse series (1989; see 1998 book, p. 65) initiated his interest in the representation of black masculinity by depicting his own naked body in often theatrical contortions, amid mundane domestic rooms; the frames of the photographs are attached to coat hangers, underlining the theme of domesticity and pointing to his interest in the changeable character of subjectivity. These themes were further explored in films, which he began to make in 1993: Spells for Beginners (1994; see 2000 exh. cat., p. 74) explores the breakdown of his long-term relationship with a woman through a broken mix of confessional dialogue and fleeting images of their home. The installation of which this film is a part takes the form of an ordinary living room and is typical of Bamgboyé’s technique of adumbrating his imagery with sculptural motifs that emphasize his themes. In other films he explored the issue of migration: ...

Article

Peter Webb

(b Kattowitz, Germany [now Katowice, Poland], March 13, 1902; d Paris, Feb 24, 1975).

German photographer, sculptor, printmaker, painter, and writer. As a child he developed fear and hatred for his tyrannical father, who totally dominated his gentle and affectionate mother. He and his younger brother Fritz found refuge from this oppressive family atmosphere in a secret garden decorated with toys and souvenirs and visited by young girls who joined in sexual games. In 1923 Bellmer was sent by his father to study engineering at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin, but he became interested in politics, reading the works of Marx and Lenin and joining in discussions with artists of the Dada. He was especially close to George Grosz, who taught him drawing and perspective in 1924 and whose advice to be a savage critic of society led him to abandon his engineering studies in that year. Having shown artistic talent at an early age, he began designing advertisements as a commercial artist and illustrated various Dada novels, such as ...

Article

Philip Cooper

[Halász, Gyula ]

(b Brasso, Transylvania, Hungary [now Romania], Sept 9, 1899; d Nice, July 8, 1984).

French photographer, draughtsman, sculptor, and writer of Hungarian birth. The son of a Hungarian professor of French literature, he lived in Paris in 1903–4 while his father was on sabbatical there, and this early experience of the city greatly impressed him. In 1917 he met the composer Béla Bartók, and from 1918 to 1919 he studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest. Due to the hostility between Hungary and France in World War I he was unable to study in France and so moved to Berlin in late 1920. There he became acquainted with László Moholy-Nagy, Kandinsky, and Kokoschka and in 1921–2 attended the Akademische Hochschule in Charlottenburg, Berlin. He was a keen draughtsman and while there produced a series of characteristic drawings of nudes executed in an angular, emphatic style. In 1924 he moved to Paris, where he quickly became involved with the artists and poets of the Montmartre and Montparnasse districts while supporting himself as a journalist. In ...

Article

Hilary Gresty

(b Sheffield, July 24, 1941).

English conceptual artist, writer and photographer. He studied painting at the Royal College of Art from 1962 to 1965 and philosophy and fine art at Yale University from 1965 to 1967. From the late 1960s he adhered to Conceptual art using combinations of photographic images and printed texts to examine the relationship between apparent and implicit meaning. In his ...

Article

Catherine M. Grant

[Schwob, Lucy ]

(b Nantes, Oct 25, 1894; d St Hélier, Jersey, Dec 8, 1954).

French photographer, writer, and sculptor. She changed her name around 1917 and studied at the Sorbonne in Paris and briefly at Oxford before settling in Paris in the early 1920s with her stepsister, lover, and lifelong companion Suzanne Malherbe. Her early self-portraits show Cahun with shaved hair and mannish clothes, as in Self-portrait (c. 1920; St Helier, Jersey Mus. Service), creating a persona that was confrontational to contemporary ideas of femininity. During the 1920s Cahun and Malherbe were a prominent lesbian couple in Parisian avant-garde circles. During this time Cahun created numerous self-portraits that played with the notion of a fixed identity, dressing up as various characters including a weight-lifter, aviator, dandy, and doll. The theatricality of these portraits, such as Self-portrait with Masks (c. 1928; Nantes, Mus. B.-A.), has been seen as a precursor to the performative work of later 20th-century artists such as Cindy Sherman. Cahun was also active within the Surrealist movement during the 1930s, signing many of their statements and writings on art, revolution, and sexuality. She made sculptures using found objects, such as ...

Article

(b Calcutta, June 11, 1815; d Dikoya Valley, Ceylon [now Sri Lanka], Jan 26, 1879).

English photographer and writer. Her father was an official in the East India Company. She therefore spent a number of years in Calcutta, but she was educated by her maternal grandmother in France and in England. In 1838 she married Charles Hay Cameron, a distinguished jurist. She brought up six children, who were born between 1839 and 1852. In 1848 the Cameron family settled permanently in England, living first in London and from 1860 at Freshwater, Isle of Wight. Cameron was a frequent visitor to the literary and artistic salon conducted by her sister, Sara Prinsep, at Little Holland House, Kensington, London. In 1847 she published a translation of Gottfried August Bürger’s Leonora; she also wrote poetry, and apparently began a novel.

Julia Margaret Cameron was given her first camera in 1864 to occupy her time while her husband and sons were on the family coffee estates in Ceylon. Photography was not a common amateur recreation in the 1860s; she described her eventual commitment to the difficult wet collodion negative and albumen print positive process in a letter to Sir John Herschel (...

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b Fareins, Ain, April 1, 1828; d Paris, 1906).

French photographer, caricaturist, and writer. He was trained as an industrial designer, then, like Nadar, he embarked on a career as a caricaturist. He was passionately fond of the theatre and published a series of lithographs, Le Théâtre à la ville, in Paris in 1854. He founded literary reviews, among which was Le Boulevard (1861), which established his reputation. After an apprenticeship in 1858 with Pierre Petit, he began to photograph artistic, literary, and political personalities with whom he was associated politically, including the composer Gioacchino Rossini (pubd 1877; e.g. in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.) and Emile Zola (pubd 1877; e.g. in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). He also photographed actors, including Sarah Bernhardt and the mime artist Charles Deburau on stage. Some friends, including Gustave Courbet (e.g. pubd 1878; Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.), were the object of a series of photographs. He was also the accredited photographer of ...

Article

Leslie Williams

[Dodgson, Charles L(utwidge)

(b Daresbury, Ches, Jan 27, 1832; d Oxford, Jan 14, 1898).

English mathematician, writer and photographer. Well-known as the author of children’s books with a logical philosophical undercurrent, he was active as an amateur photographer, using wet collodion plates, from May 1856 to July 1880, according to his diary. His portraits of Victorian luminaries include Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 21), Arthur Hughes (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 32), John Everett Millais (1865; see Gernsheim, pl. 48), Alfred Tennyson (1857; see Gernsheim, pl. 8) and many churchmen. His portraits of children are often elegantly composed: The Ellis Children (1865; see Ovenden and Melville, pl. 2), for example, lie, sit and stand to form a white triangle of dresses on the dark landscape. Effie Millais (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 50) in her white flannel night-gown swirls within an oval frame. His letters suggest that he made numerous nude studies of children. Four hand-tinted examples of these may be found in the Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia....

Article

W. Iain Mackay

(b Carhuás, Ancash, Oct 2, 1857; d San Miguel de Tucumán, Dec 1922).

Peruvian painter, photographer, teacher and critic. At the age of four he was brought to Lima, where he began to take lessons in art. From 1885 he travelled through France, Italy and Belgium, and on returning to Latin America he settled in Buenos Aires, where he took up photography. In 1905 he returned to Lima, where he set up a workshop and art college at the Quinta Heeren, introducing the latest photographic techniques. On visiting Spain in 1908 Castillo discovered the historical genre paintings of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal, and once back in Lima worked as a painter and as art critic for the magazines Prisma, Variedades, Actualidades and Ilustración peruana. He later supported Daniel Hernández in founding (1919) the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima (see also Peru, Republic of, §XI). In parallel with the writer Ricardo Palma, Castillo was concerned with recording the traditions of Lima’s colonial past, and such paintings as the ...

Article

Paolo Costantini

(b Lucera, Foggia, Nov 29, 1904; d Senigallia, Oct 25, 1961).

Italian photographer and writer. He graduated in law from the University of Rome in 1926 and practised as a lawyer in Rome (1926–35). He was self-taught as a photographer. From 1935 to his death he worked as a freelance photographer in Senigallia. He was a founding member of three photographic groups of great importance in the theoretical debate on photography in Italy, the Gruppo degli Otto (1941), La Bussola (Senigallia, 1947) and the Gruppo MISA (1953). He was the recipient of numerous international awards and was one of the most important figures in Italian photography between 1940 and 1955.

Cavalli was dedicated to the exaltation of a formal aesthetic in photography, and he discussed his conviction that photography was an art form in numerous articles in the main Italian photographic magazines between 1947 and 1961 (especially Ferrania, Rivista fotografica and Progresso fotografico). His photographs, first published in ...

Article

Ismeth Raheem

(b 1854; d England, 1913).

English photographer, publisher and writer. He first travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) as private secretary to the Bishop of Colombo. In 1870 he set up a small bookshop in Colombo, which by 1884 had diversified into a flourishing publishing house, H. W. Cave & Company, and a printing firm equipped to produce books with excellent quality photographic reproductions. He took a serious interest in photography, and this enabled him to illustrate the pictorial travelogues written by him and published by his own firm. His close supervision of the details of book production and photographic reproduction gave him a competitive edge over other commercial photographers. He returned to England in 1886 after the death of his wife and settled down in Oxford. He made occasional visits to Ceylon, but continued to manage his firm’s business from England.

In his photography Cave specialized in rural and landscape scenes and was especially interested in creating views with luxuriant tropical vegetation, using dramatic atmospheric lighting effects. Some of the best examples of this type of work are reproduced in his lavishly printed travelogues ...

Article

Patricia Strathern

(b Fleurieux, Rhône, May 2, 1828; d Paris, Oct 24, 1915).

French photographer, archaeologist, and writer. An intrepid traveller, he used photography as a method of recording and documenting the sites he explored and wrote about. He left for the USA in 1857, spending two years in Mexico from 1857 to 1859. Using the wet collodion process and large plates, his photography (e.g. Mexico—Chichen Itza, c. 1858; see Berger and Levrault, cat. no. 40) was something of a technical feat in the circumstances. He returned to Europe in 1861, and his first book, Antiquités mexicaines, was published the same year. In 1863 he photographed in Madagascar and from 1864 to 1880 worked in South America, Java, Australia, and Canada. In 1880 he returned to Mexico, where he made some important archaeological discoveries in Pre-Columbian sites.

See also: Pre-Columbian sources in American architecture; Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §X, 1.

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b London, June 24, 1920; d New York, Aug 21, 2003).

English photographer, painter, writer and curator. He took his first photographs in 1941, whilst serving in the King’s African Rifles in Ethiopia. On his return to London in 1946 he studied painting at various art schools, and had a first exhibition of his tachiste-influenced abstract paintings at the New Visions Centre Gallery, London, in 1957. Inspired by the exhibition The New American Painting (London, Tate, 1959), Coplans moved to the USA in 1960 and began teaching at the University of California at Berkeley. In 1962 he co-founded the periodical Artforum, to provide coverage of the growing West Coast art scene. He worked as Curator/Director of the Pasadena Art Museum (1967–70), where his shows included a travelling retrospective in 1967 of Roy Lichtenstein’s paintings and another of Andy Warhol’s work in 1970. In 1971 he settled in New York as the editor of Artforum, a position he held until ...

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b St Germain-en-Laye, July 7, 1859; d Hennequeville, Normandy, Dec 29, 1936).

French photographer, writer and theorist. He was from a banking family and was financially secure, which enabled him to devote all his time to photography from 1880 to 1914. He was especially interested in the gum bichromate printing process, which could be easily hand tinted, and in which he achieved remarkably subtle effects. He tackled all the genres: oriental scenes, nudes, dancers (e.g. Behind the Scenes, 1900; New York, Met.), portraits (e.g. of Mlle D., pubd in Camera Work, 16 Oct 1906), landscapes and scenes from everyday life. In subject-matter his works oscillate between naturalism, as in Académie (1900; New York, Met.), and symbolism as in Struggle. His works were frequently exhibited (Paris, London, Vienna, New York) and were an instant success. In 1904 Alfred Stieglitz devoted a portfolio to Demachy in his review Camera Work.

Demachy was also a theorist of ‘art’ photography, giving numerous lectures, and writing articles for the ...

Article

Ewa Mikina

(b Radomsko, nr Częestochowa, April 24, 1921).

Polish photographer, writer and painter. He was self-taught as an artist. Just after World War II he founded and became one of the most active members of the avant-garde Club of Young Artists and Scientists (Klub Młodych Artystow i Naukowcow), Warsaw. Club activities, as well as his own ideas concerning possible union between the new, radical left-wing art and the political and social situation in the country, reached an impasse with the rise of Socialist Realism in 1949. He was the editor of the magazine Fotografia from 1953 to 1972 and a lecturer at the Film School, Łódź, from 1966 to 1975. From 1982 he lived in Paris.

In the 1940s Dłubak produced extreme close-up photographs with metaphoric titles. His ‘cool medium’ (deliberately banal) documentary works of the 1950s (e.g. the series Existences, 1955–66) clashed with official, optimistic, propaganda images. Later his work and his numerous theoretical writings were stimulated by studies in ...

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b Paris, Feb 8, 1822; d Baden-Baden, Feb 9, 1894).

French photographer and writer. He was from a wealthy background, and he learnt calotype photography from Gustave Le Gray and Alexis de Lagrange. In 1849 he was sent by the Ministère de l’Instruction Publique on a mission to the Middle East to record the monuments and inscriptions. He undertook the trip (1849–51) with his friend the writer Gustave Flaubert, and during his travels he used a modified calotype process imparted to him by Alexis de Lagrange. He brought back c. 200 pictures from Egypt and some from Jerusalem and Baalbek. The album Egypte, Nubie, Palestine et Syrie: Dessins photographiques recueillis pendant les années 1849, 1850, 1851, accompagnés d’un texte explicatif et précédés d’une introduction was published by Gide and Baudry in 1852–4 (copy in Paris, Bib. Inst.; prints in Paris, Mus. d’Orsay; Paris, Bib. N.; Paris, Inst. Géog. N.). It contains 125 calotypes printed by Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, and it was the first printed work in France to be illustrated with ...

Article

Mary Christian

(b London, June 26, 1853; d London, June 24, 1943).

English photographer and writer. He took up photography in the early 1880s out of his interest in the ‘study of the beautiful’ while a bookseller in London. In 1887 he received a medal from the Royal Photographic Society for his microscopic photographs of shells, which to his dismay were categorized as scientific photographs. In 1889 he met Aubrey Beardsley and was instrumental in getting Beardsley his first assignment illustrating Tennyson’s Morte d’Arthur. Evans’s portrait of Aubrey Beardsley (1894; Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.), showing the artist holding his head in his hands, is one of his finest.

Around 1890 Evans began to photograph English and French cathedrals; it was on his architectural photography that his reputation was established. One hundred and twenty of his platinum prints were exhibited at the Architectural Club, Boston, in 1897. The next year, aged 45, Evans retired from his bookshop to devote his time to photography. In ...

Article

Martha Schwendener

(b Barcelona, Feb 24, 1955).

Spanish photographer and writer. He studied at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, where he earned a degree in communications (1977). He worked in advertising to support himself during his early career and was a professor in the Faculty of Fine Arts of the university of Barcelona from 1979 to 1986. Fontcuberta’s work was primarily concerned with truth in photography, and particularly its application in scientific fields, which echoed post-modern ideas articulated by such philosophers as Michel Foucault. Fontcuberta also aligned himself with conceptual practitioners who described themselves as ‘artists using photography’ rather than ‘photographers’. In addition to his background in communications and advertising, Fontcuberta identified growing up under the reign of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco as a major influence on his work. Many of his projects include fictional characters whose names, translated into Spanish, are actually ‘Fontcuberta’, or elements that allude slyly to his own biography and critique issues of authorship. ...

Article

Virginia Dodier

(b Berlin, Dec 19, 1912; d March 31, 2000).

French photographer and writer of German birth. She studied sociology and art history before becoming an international freelance photojournalist in 1935. She took documentary photographs covering social issues and portraits of writers, artists and intellectuals, for example Simone de Beauvoir (see Freund, 1985, pp. 140–41). Her work was published by Life, Weekly Illustrated, Picture Post, Paris-Match and many other magazines, and exhibited internationally. During World War II she fled to southern France, and to Argentina and Chile, where she worked with the Louis Jouvet Theatre Company. She spent a brief period in Mexico (1950–52) but was based in France from 1946. A pioneer of 35 mm photo-reportage, in both black and white and colour, she revealed in her work a preoccupation with the role of photography in society, culminating in her pioneering study, Photographie et société (1977).

La Photographie en France au dix-neuvième siècle (Paris, 1936)...