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Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Stuttgart, Nov 8, 1924).

German photographer and collector. He trained as a photographer and specifically as a photojournalist before he fought in World War II. From 1950 he studied at the Schule für Angewandte Kunst in Weimar. In 1952 he moved to Mannheim, where he set up a studio and organized numerous exhibitions of contemporary art. In the following years he produced many volumes of photographs, including portraits of cities. He also produced series of pictures that are narrative in intent but dramatic and heavy in tone. Between 1952 and 1954 his work became formally stricter but lighter in tone. The earlier poetic images progressed to critical and political messages on themes such as loneliness, desolation, doubt and death. Häusser’s cryptic method of translating political content is particularly clear in The 21 Doors of Benito Mussolini (Cologne, Mus. Ludwig). Häusser was an active collector of works by German artists such as Gotthard Graubner, Karl–Otto Götz and ...


Kevin Halliwell


(b Selezna, Tambov province, July 16, 1837; d Nizhny Novgorod, July 31, 1906).

Russian photographer, collector, painter and draughtsman. He was born into a peasant family, and he studied briefly as an icon painter before entering the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg in 1857. After graduating in 1864, he stayed in St Petersburg to learn photography, and he opened a portrait studio in Nizhny Novgorod in 1869. Like many of his colleagues at the Academy, he had worked as a retoucher of photographs for the sake of employment, and initially he regarded photography merely as material support. He gradually became more interested in the medium, however, especially in the decade 1875–85, when it supplanted his painting.

Karelin made many photographic portraits and genre studies, and he is important in both the technical and the aesthetic sense. His studio was larger than usual, with numerous windows, top lighting and glazed walls. He disdained the use of painted props, preferring instead to use real domestic furnishings. He was especially concerned to achieve a sharp focus in all fields in the photograph, and to this end he studied optics, independently realizing the connection between the focal length of the lens and the size of the aperture for depth of clarity. To achieve his ends he therefore introduced into portrait photography the use of additional diverging and converging lenses. He also managed, through the use of lenses, to overcome the more common distortions. This technical achievement gained him many gold medals at international photographic exhibitions in the 1870s and 1880s....


Eugenia Parry Janis

(b Paris, Aug 18, 1818; d Paris, Dec 26, 1882).

French photographer, painter, printmaker, and collector. After studying with the sculptor James Pradier and the painters Jean-Pierre Granger (1779–1840) and Paul Delaroche, he made his début at the Salon of 1842, winning a third-class medal there in 1845. He turned to photography in the wave of self-enrichment preceding the 1848 Revolution. With Charles Nègre he experimented with the waxed paper negative process of (Jean-Baptiste-)Gustave Le Gray, from whom he probably received personal instruction before 1850. Unlike other photographers, who later adopted glass negatives, Le Secq continued to use paper, at first employing photographs as studies for his genre paintings.

By 1851 Le Secq excelled at rendering ancient and medieval monuments in a pictorial style that exploited the effects of light and shadow, turning architecture into symbolic fragments evoking a rapidly disappearing historical past, which Le Secq sought to save photographically. After helping found the Société Héliographique in 1851...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Hamburg, Oct 7, 1903; d Munich, April 4, 1975).

German photographer and collector. He was a self-taught photographer but was given some support by his friend Andreas Feininger. For a long time he worked at various jobs and for the family coffee importing business. He fled from Germany in 1936 and went first to London and then to Paris, where he became a professional photographer and enjoyed a great success with publications in Vogue, Life Magazine, Harper’s Bazaar, Arts et Métiers graphiques and The Studio.

At this time List’s work was already characterized as mysterious, magical and surreal. In 1937 a photograph of the Lykabettos (see Metken, no. 22), one of his most characteristic and best-known works, appeared in the Arts et Métiers graphiques yearbook; it depicted a woman draped in white, holding a mirror in front of her head in which she reflects her own outstretched hand. List saw photography as one of the fine arts and referred to the influence of artistic circles on his work. As a result his photographs are close both to Pittura Metafisica (e.g. ...


Astrid Schmetterling

[Baumann, Hans Felix Siegismund]

(b Freiburg im Breisgau, Nov 30, 1893; d London, Jan 30, 1985).

British photographer, writer and collector of German birth. He began to study fine art and art history in Munich and Berlin in 1912, but had to interrupt his studies in 1914 on the outbreak of World War I. While serving as an officer at the front he began to take photographs. He resumed his studies in 1918 and in 1926 moved to Berlin, where he worked as an illustrator. Soon he gave up drawing and concentrated on photography, adopting his professional name in 1929. Between 1929 and 1934 he worked for the Münchner Illustrierte Presse and the Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, for which he travelled all over Europe and North Africa and spent eight months in Canada.

Man was a leading photojournalist who contributed particularly to what later became known as ‘candid camera’ photography. His use of the light available instead of a flash made him unobtrusive, allowing him to catch his subjects unawares. Forced out of Germany by the Nazis, Man emigrated in ...