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Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, March 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of 18 lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–4. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...

Article

Robert Smith

(John)

(b Guernsey, Channel Islands, Feb 28, 1837; d Melbourne, Feb 13, 1918).

Australian photographer of Guernsey birth. After his arrival in South Australia c. 1858, he pursued his interest in photography while working as a hairdresser, becoming a professional photographer in Adelaide in 1867. Economic recession led him to move in 1870 to the neighbouring colony of Victoria, where he worked as hairdresser and photographer in the goldfields settlement of Talbot. By 1871 he was able to open a studio in the larger town of Bendigo, achieving commercial success with carte-de-visite portraits and local views. He had an interest in art, having tried his hand at painting, and became a precursor of Pictorial photography, converting the formally posed group portrait into the conversation piece and producing landscape scenes with human interest genre subjects and picturesque effects to meet a growing nationalistic demand.

To take advantage of his increasing success Caire moved to Melbourne in 1876 to exploit its rapid urban growth as subject-matter, and to use it as a base for forays into the countryside, seeking novel or spectacular subjects. Expansion of the railway system and his adoption of the dry plate process gave him greater mobility, and he was able to photograph increasingly remote localities, culminating in an expedition to Mt Buffalo, in ...

Article

Robert Smith

(Pierce)

(b Wellington, New Zealand, March 30, 1878; d Sydney, June 19, 1953).

Australian photographer of New Zealand birth (see fig.). His father, Pierce Mott Cazneau (1849–1928), was an English-born New Zealand photographer, who became manager of a photographic portraiture studio in Adelaide c. 1889 and took his family to South Australia. While still at school Harold Cazneaux assisted his father and in 1897 joined the same studio as an artist-retoucher. He was mainly interested in becoming an artist and attended evening classes conducted by Harry P. Gill. Acquaintance with the influence of the English Pictorial photography movement in the 1890s made him aware of the medium’s artistic potential. Dissatisfied with his routine occupation in Adelaide, c. 1904 he joined a studio in Sydney where the work was similar, but a higher salary enabled him to buy his own camera and begin creative photography on his own account, including a lasting preoccupation with pictorial celebration of the diversity of everyday life in the city....

Article

Edward Hanfling

[William] (Franklin)

(b Port Chalmers, Jan 23, 1935).

New Zealand photographer, sculptor, installation artist, and painter, active also in France and Great Britain. Culbert consistently explored the workings of both natural and artificial light in his works, as well as the transformation of found objects and materials. A student at Hutt Valley High School, his artistic ability was fostered by the radical art educator James Coe. From 1953 to 1956, Culbert studied at the Canterbury University College School of Art in Christchurch. Moving to London in 1957 to attend the Royal College of Art, he became interested in the photographic works of László Moholy-Nagy and Man Ray, while his paintings were informed by Cubism. In 1961 Culbert moved to Croagnes in Provence, France; he remained in France and the UK for the rest of his career.

During 1967–8, Culbert shifted his focus from the analysis of form and light in painting to the analysis of actual light, often arranging light bulbs in grid formations. In ...

Article

Robert Smith

(b Hemingford Abbots, Hunts [now Cambs], Dec 13, 1832; d Beckenham, Kent, June 20, 1878).

Australian photographer and geologist of English birth. In 1852 he withdrew from studies at Christ’s College, Cambridge (1851–2) for health reasons, joined the Australian gold-rush, and spent two unproductive years prospecting in Victoria. The experience inspired an interest in geology, and in 1854 he joined the Victorian mineralogical survey as an assistant surveyor. During six months’ stay in London in 1856 and 1857 to study assaying at the Royal School of Mines, he became interested in photography. On his return to Victoria in 1858 he collaborated with Antoine Julien Fauchery (1823–61) in producing Sun Pictures of Victoria, a series of photographs illustrating various aspects of the life and scenery of the colony. Having rejoined the newly named Victorian Geological Survey (1859), in 1860 he began regularly using photography as a substitute for hand-drawn diagrams, and as a topographical record. With government financial support he produced photographs publicizing the colony for the International Exhibition in London of ...

Article

Patrick McCaughey

(b Bognor Regis, Feb 7, 1912; d Sydney, June 29, 1981).

Australian painter and photographer of English birth. His family settled in Melbourne in 1923, but Drysdale visited Europe twice in the early 1930s; on his second visit in 1932–3 he was particularly excited by the work of Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso. The experience confirmed his desire to be an artist.

After returning to Melbourne, Drysdale studied for two years with George Bell, who ran the only school devoted to the teaching of modern art. In May 1938 Drysdale returned to Europe to continue his studies with Iain McNab (1890–1967) at the Grosvenor School of Art in London and then with Othon Friesz at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris. Such works as the Rabbiter and his Family (1938; R. G. Casey priv. col., see Dutton, p. 23) demonstrate his early interest in Australian rural life.

Drysdale returned to Australia in ...

Article

Robert Smith

(well Spencer)

(b Sydney, April 22, 1911; d July 27, 1992).

Australian photographer (see fig.). By 1929, when he joined the New South Wales Photographic Society, he had been an enthusiastic photographer for five years. In 1930 he began exhibiting and became assistant to Cecil Bostock (1884–1939), a leading commercial photographer and devotee of Pictorial photography. Dupain studied art at the East Sydney Technical College and at Julian Ashton’s Art School in Sydney. Within three years he had left Bostock and broken with the Impressionist effects of Pictorialism in favour of European-derived styles emphasizing form, dramatic contrasts and adventurous choice of subject. After a subsequent period of experiment with various modern artistic idioms, by the late 1930s he achieved a distinctive personal style based on perceptive and imaginative attitudes to subject-matter. His work had a growing documentary tendency possessing an affinity with developments in the USA.

During World War II Dupain worked first in a camouflage unit and then for the Department of Information (until ...

Article

Leonard Bell

(b London, Feb 24, 1928).

New Zealand photographer. Born and trained in London, she migrated to New Zealand in 1958. By 1964 she was working as a freelance professional photographer, and was soon prominent in several genres, notably portraiture, in particular of artists, potters, writers, and children, and ‘street’ photography, as well as photojournalism for periodicals and newspapers, such as the Wine Review and the New Zealand Herald. Several highly successful books followed from the 1970s. A major exhibition of her work, organized by the Auckland Art Gallery, toured the country from 2001 to 2004. Subsequently, there have been further acclaimed exhibitions of her work. She is regarded as one the key photographers in New Zealand since World War II.

Friedlander’s portraits reveal an extraordinary ability to bring into visibility qualities of personality and temperament, while her photographs overall can be seen as explorations of places and their inhabitants, in particular the complexities of people’s relationships with their fellows and the societies they live in. In these explorations Friedlander herself was a participant, that is, her photographs are also investigations into her own place in specific social and cultural situations, whether in New Zealand, Israel, England, or Tokelau in the Pacific. For Instance, her photographs of elderly Maori women with ...

Article

Michael Dunn

(b London, Sept 17, 1819; d Auckland, Sept 5, 1903).

English painter and photographer, active also in New Zealand. By profession he was an Anglican minister and school-teacher. An accomplished watercolour painter, he had studied under Aaron Penley (1807–70) at Southampton in 1835–6. His interests in architectural sketching were furthered when he was at Cambridge by his membership of the Camden Society in 1842. In 1855 he emigrated to New Zealand, settling in Auckland. Kinder is noted for his quiet but lyrical topographical views of the New Zealand landscape and settlements between 1855 and 1890, for example the watercolour On Mercury Island (1857; Auckland, A.G.) and Te Kohukohu (1858; Auckland, A. G.). He made historic photographic and painted records of Anglican missions to the Maori and of sites of battles during the Land Wars of the 1860s. He was a founder-member of the Auckland Society of Artists. There is a major collection of his work in the Auckland Art Gallery....

Article

(b Berlin, Oct 31, 1920; d Los Angeles, Jan 23, 2004).

Australian photographer of German birth. He was brought up in Germany and apprenticed to the fashion and theatre photographer Yva from 1936 to 1938. In the latter year he went to Australia and, acquiring Australian nationality, worked as a freelance photographer in Sydney in the mid-1940s for Jardin des modes, Elle, Queen, Playboy and others. In 1958 he began working as a fashion photographer, predominantly for French and American Vogue and for Stern, producing images that were often overtly erotic, sometimes with violent undertones. In 1961 he settled in Paris. Though primarily a fashion photographer, he also took a number of portrait photographs of celebrities, such as Salvador Dalí, Figueras (1986; see Portraits, p. 191). From 1981 he divided his time between Monte Carlo and Los Angeles.

Newton, Helmut publications World Without Men (London, 1984) Portraits: Photographs from Europe and America (London, 1987) [with intro. by C. Squiers]...

Article

William Main

(b Keboemen, Indonesia, 1915; d Australia, Aug 1985).

New Zealand photographer and decorative artist of Dutch origin. He was educated in the Netherlands and in New Zealand, where he attended the Canterbury School of Fine Arts, Christchurch, in 1939. Shortly after this he gradually withdrew from Western cultural influences and began to draw upon Asian and Polynesian influences for his artistic inspiration. While attempting to trace early examples of Maori art he studied cave drawings in remote parts of New Zealand, and also photographed geothermal formations in the centre of North Island. Influenced by the Maori artist Pine Taiapa, he revived an almost forgotten Maori art form by decorating gourds with intricate moko designs. Finally, he took up the carving of jade ornaments, and his success in this work led to the publication of his book Jade Country (1973). Dissatisfied with the way his work was received, he left New Zealand to live in Indonesia and Australia....

Article

Helen Ennis

(b Berlin, Sept 18, 1913; d Melbourne, Aug 7, 2007).

Australian photographer of German birth. His father, Dr Johannes Sievers, was an architectural historian. Sievers trained at the Contempora private art academy in Berlin in 1933. Due to his leftwing sympathies and Jewish descent, Sievers left Germany in 1934 and lived and worked in Portugal. He returned to Berlin in 1936 where he began teaching at the Contempora academy. Sievers developed his interest in architectural photography through his father, who was an expert on the German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and through contact with influential modernist architect Erich Mendelsohn. Sievers applied to migrate to Australia in 1938—one of his sponsors was photographer Axel Poignant (1906–86), then living in Western Australia—but after being called up to the Luftwaffe he fled to England in 1938. He arrived in Australia in August that year and settled in Melbourne. He married Finnish émigré Brita Klarich in 1939 (divorced in 1972), and had two children, Karin (...