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Article

Patricia Strathern

(b La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, Seine-et-Marne, Jan 9, 1818; d Paris, 1881).

French photographer and sculptor. He originally worked as a sculptor, and he turned to portrait photography under the influence of the Munich photographer Franz Hanfstaengel. Adam-Salomon’s antique poses, making much use of light and shade to give painterly effects, were inspired by Classical sculpture and painting and incorporated expensive fabrics and settings. He also favoured heavy retouching of the negatives, for which he was criticized by some contemporaries. He was, however, much admired for the imposing character of many of his portraits (e.g. Portrait of a Man, c. 1865; see Berger and Levrault, no. 1). He continued his sculpture as well, producing portrait busts (many still extant), generally based on photographs. Subjects included Rossini and the poet Lamartine, as well as a monument in Les Invalides, Paris, to the Duke of Padua. Some of those hostile to photography, such as Lamartine, were persuaded to consider it as an art by the work of Adam-Salomon. He founded his studio in Paris in ...

Article

Julie Lawson

(b Fife, 1809; d St Andrews, Fife, 1870).

Scottish photographer. He studied medicine in Edinburgh (1829) and Paris, but returned to St Andrews in the 1830s. A member of the St Andrews Literary and Philosophical Society, he associated with the circle interested in photographic experimentation and theory. Adamson experimented with Talbot’s calotype process, introduced to Scotland by Sir David Brewster (1781–1868), and made the first calotype portrait in Scotland, of Miss Melville Adamson (c. 1842; Edinburgh, Royal Mus. Scotland; see Morrison-Low, p. 20). He taught several of the early Scottish photographers, including his younger brother, Robert (see Hill and Adamson), and Thomas Rodger (1833–83) of St Andrews. Most of Adamson’s surviving work is in the Royal Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, and St Andrews University Library.

A. D. Morrison-Low: ‘Dr John and Robert Adamson: An Early Partnership in Scottish Photography’, Phot. Col, 4/2 (1983), pp. 198–214

Hill and Adamson...

Article

Lee Fontanella

(b Mazarambroz, Toledo, Aug 14, 1832; d Toledo, Dec 3, 1914).

Spanish photographer. He moved to Toledo c. 1862, and he and Fernando González Pedroso were the first two professional photographers to set up a permanent establishment there. His suite of 12 vistas de Toledo (Toledo, 1871) consisted of 14 photographs mounted on decorated passe-partouts. Alguacil is known for this format, which he enlarged for certain views contained in the 1870s series of publications of Monumentos artísticos do España (Toledo; R. Amador de los Ríos, ed.). Alguacil is usually identified with this series, in which the views were not limited to Toledo. He also maintained a ‘Museo fotográfico’, produced a series of photographs on San Juan de los Reyes (1895) and in 1906 won the photographic competition in La Mancha for photographing monuments and art objects. The Alguacil archives are located in the town hall in Toledo.

M. Carrero de Dios and others: Toledo en la fotografía de Alguacil, 1832–1914...

Article

Erika Billeter

Italian family of photographers. From 1845 to 1850 Leopoldo Alinari worked in Florence for a wealthy lithographer, Giuseppe Bardi. With him he organized Fratelli Alinari, Presso Bardi, a small photographic laboratory in the Via Cornina, Florence. In a city that took a keen interest in the thriving photographic industry, their venture was soon successful. By 1854 Leopoldo was able to purchase the business from Bardi, and with his brothers Romualdo Alinari (1830–91) and Giuseppe Alinari (1836–92) he founded Fratelli Alinari, Editori Fotografichi. They specialized in art reproductions, as well as portraits and landscapes (e.g. photographs of Tuscany and of the buildings and monuments in Florence, Pisa (see fig.), Siena, Rome and Naples). In 1861 they moved the studio to new premises at 8, Via Nazionale. After Leopoldo’s death his brothers carried on the business. Giuseppe experimented with such new photographic processes as wet collodion, and the firm published numerous catalogues, concentrating on photographs of buildings and works of art. In ...

Article

Mary Christian

[Atkinson, Isaac; Dunbar, William Nugent]

(b Blencarn, Cumb. [now Cumbria], March 11, 1813; d Rome, Feb 27, 1877).

English photographer, active in Italy. Born Isaac Atkinson, he went to Paris as a young man to study painting, and in 1838 he went to Rome, where he adopted the names William Nugent Dunbar and later James Anderson, and where he participated in the annual exhibition of the Società degli Amatori e Cultori delle Belle Arti. By 1849 he was established as a photographer of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture and views of Rome, all for the tourist market. In 1859 he published his first album of photographic prints. Later he turned more exclusively to reproducing famous works of art. The business was continued into the 20th century by his eldest son, Domenico Anderson, and into the 1950s by the third generation of the family. In the 1960s Anderson’s prints and negatives became part of the great art-historical archive in Florence.

Catalogue des photographies de Rome de James Anderson (Paris, 1859)...

Article

Mattie Boom

(Isaac)

(b Amsterdam, Oct 19, 1809; d Amsterdam, Sept 21, 1894).

Dutch photographer and lawyer . He made the earliest photographs to be found in the Netherlands, daguerreotypes of his daughters and other members of his family. In the 1840s a number of daguerreotypists, mostly foreign, settled in Dutch towns as professional portrait photographers. Asser, however, remained an amateur and experimented with a variety of photographic techniques and genres. He took self-portraits, pictures of his daughters, his son, his wife and of his friend E. Bour, also a photographer, using the calotype process (see Photography, §I). There are also studies of streets, buildings and canals in Amsterdam in his albums (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). In his studio he made photographic still-lifes of vases, small sculptures and of the instruments from his physics cabinet. His compositions reveal a knowledge of the fine arts: in his youth the painter Jan Adam Kruseman had given him drawing and painting lessons.

In 1855, with Bour, Asser entered the first Dutch photographic exhibition, organized by the Vereeniging van Volksvlijt in Amsterdam and The Hague. This exhibition, which introduced photography for the first time to some people, included works by Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, André Adolphe Eugène Disdéri, Charles Nègre, Charles Marville, Bisson frères, Hermann Krone and others. In the same year Asser put himself forward for membership of the Société Française de Photographie. Asser’s work was shown at the ...

Article

Maria Morris Hambourg

(b Libourne, nr Bordeaux, Feb 12, 1857; d Paris, Aug 4, 1927).

French photographer. An only child of working-class parents, he was orphaned at an early age and went to sea. Determined to be an actor, he managed to study at the Conservatoire d’Art Dramatique in Paris for a year but was dismissed to finish his military service. Thereafter he acted for several seasons in the provinces but failed to distinguish himself and left the stage. An interest in painting but lack of facility led him to take up photography in the late 1880s. At this time photography was experiencing unprecedented expansion in both commercial and amateur fields. Atget entered the commercial arena. Equipped with a standard box camera on a tripod and 180×240 mm glass negatives, he gradually made some 10,000 photographs of France that describe its cultural legacy and its popular culture. He printed his negatives on ordinary albumen-silver paper and sold his prints to make a living. Despite the prevailing taste for soft-focus, painterly photography from ...

Article

(b Tonbridge, Kent, March 16, 1799; d Halstead Place, Kent, June 9, 1871).

English photographer and scientist. The only daughter of the scientist John George Children (1777–1852), she was a pioneering photographer and the first person to publish a photographically printed and illustrated book. Her privately published British Algae, issued in parts from 1843 to 1853, pre-dated William Henry Fox Talbot Pencil of Nature (London, 1844) and stood for some time as the only sustained effort to apply photography to scientific illustration. Her plates of seaweed specimens were photograms, contact printed in the cyanotype, or blueprint, photographic process, invented in 1842 by her friend Sir John Herschel. In the early 1850s, collaborating with Anne Dixon (1799–1864), Atkins turned to creative expression with cyanotype photograms (e.g. Spirea aruncus, 1851–4). Her visual approach, initially shaped by the requirements of scientific illustration rather than the conventions of Victorian art, was bold and direct and strongly anticipated the later photograms of ...

Article

Elizabeth Anne McCauley

(b Paris, June 3, 1811; d Paris, March 23, 1877).

French photographer. For more than 30 years Aubry worked as an industrial designer. In January 1864 he formed a Parisian company to manufacture plaster casts and photographs of plants and flowers. Although unsuccessful (he filed for bankruptcy in 1865), he continued to sell photographs to drawing schools throughout the 1870s. His albumen prints are often striking close-ups of natural forms taken with a flat perspective and symmetrical arrangement that was inspired by the lithographic plates traditionally used by industrial design students. The failure of Aubry’s ideas on the use of photographs in the industrial design process can be attributed to both the French government’s reluctance to introduce photography into art schools and the shift in French taste towards more abstract, simplified decorations for manufactured goods. His work is included in the collections of the Bibliothèque Nationale, the Bibliothèque des Arts Décoratifs and Musée d’Orsay, Paris, and the J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, CA....

Article

Hélène Bocard

(b Grünebach, Westphalia, Prussia [now Germany], June 5, 1813; d Arcueil, Dec 22, 1889).

French photographer and painter of German origin. He was originally a painter, and he took up photography c. 1848. Within the framework of the Mission Héliographique established by the Commission des Monuments Historiques in 1851, he managed to establish himself as an architectural photographer (see Architectural photography). The Ministère de l’Intérieur ordered him to undertake a variety of projects, such as photographing construction work on the new Louvre (1854–69; see fig.) and the Rhône floods (1856). Other commissions were the albums Chemin de fer du Nord: Ligne de Paris à Boulogne (1855; see fig.) and L’Album des chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée (1859; copies in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). From 1865 Baldus was content to exploit his stock of photographs.

Baldus was an Architectural photography of merit. He brought an originality of treatment to his modern subject-matter, using daring compositions, as in ...

Article

Nancy B. Keeler

(b Breteuil-sur-Noye, Oise, Jan 20, 1801; d Nemours, Seine-et-Marne, May 14, 1887).

French photographer and civil servant. His invention in early 1839 of direct positive photography on paper, by using silver chloride and potassium iodide, upon which light acted as a bleach, was totally original. It differed from the daguerreotype of Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre in producing a positive image on paper rather than on a metal plate, and it differed from the invention of William Henry Fox Talbot in that it produced a positive image without the use of a negative (see Photography, §I). Bayard’s images were sharper than Talbot’s, but because of their paper support they still lacked the fine detail of the daguerreotype. Unable to secure the influential patronage of the scientist and politician François Arago, who was backing Daguerre, Bayard undertook to promote his own invention, with remarkable success. In July 1839—one month before the daguerreotype process was publicly divulged—Bayard showed his photographs in a benefit art exhibition in Paris and gained favourable reviews. This was the first public ...

Article

Geoffrey Batchen

(b Devon, Dec 22, 1801; d Hampstead, London, June 7, 1885).

English photographic studio proprietor. Beginning his career in London as a coal merchant, in June 1840 Beard bought the rights to a daguerreotype camera featuring a concave mirror invented by Alexander Wolcott in New York. With reliable portraits not yet able to be made, Beard hired the services of John Frederick Goddard, who by September 1840 claimed to reduce exposure times to about one minute, an innovation patented by Beard. With further refinements in hand, on 23 March 1841 Beard opened the first commercial photography studio in London, housed in the Royal Polytechnic Institution, and began making small ninth-plate portraits, with exposure times of between four and seven seconds on a bright day. His first customers included members of the lower aristocracy and wealthier members of the middle class, such as the Irish novelist Maria Edgeworth and the American abolitionist Wendell Phillips. Threatened with the closure of his studio, on ...

Article

Italo Zannier

British photographers of Italian origin. Antonio Beato (b ?the Veneto, c. 1830; d Luxor, 1903) and his brother Felice [Felix] Beato (b ?the Veneto, c. 1830; d Mandalay, after 1904) were for many years thought to be one person with two names, Antonio and Felice, and only recently has the mystery been solved of the almost contemporaneous presence of a Beato in two different (and often very distant) places. The misunderstanding arose from the fact that both their names (Antonio Felice Beato) appear on several photographs. A closer inquiry brought to light a letter written by Antonio and published in the French paper, Moniteur de la photographie (1 June 1886), in which he explains that he is not the producer of the exotic photographs recently exhibited in London, mention of which had been made in the Moniteur of 10 March; the photographer was instead ‘[his] brother Monsieur Felice Beato of Japan’....

Article

revised by Stephanie Spencer and Sophie Gordon

(b London, Aug 13, 1815; d London, May 15, 1894).

English printmaker and photographer. His first known works are architectural drawings exhibited at the Royal Academy in the 1840s, which documented buildings designed by his architect father Francis Octavius Bedford (1784–1858). He quickly turned to engraving, design, and lithography, working for Standidge & Co., and later Day & Son. He continued to produce lithographs until c. 1858, contributing to many significant publications on British design and manufacturing. He took up photography around 1853 initially to assist with the accuracy of his lithographic work, photographing works of art in the Marlborough House museum (later the South Kensington Museum) for Henry Cole. In 1854 he exhibited for the first time in the Photographic Society of London exhibition. Bedford continued to exhibit widely in British and international exhibitions throughout the 1850s and 1860s. He concentrated primarily on landscape and architectural scenes, often made during annual tours of southern England and Wales (...

Article

Martha Schwendener

[Ben Youseph Nathan, Esther Zeghdda]

(b London, Nov 21, 1869; d Brooklyn, NY, Nov 27, 1933).

American photographer. Born Esther Zeghdda Ben Youseph Nathan to a German mother and an Algerian father, she immigrated to the United States in 1895. She worked as a milliner in New York before opening a photographic portrait studio in 1897. Her ‘gallery of illustrious Americans’ featured actresses, politicians, and fashionable socialites, including President Theodore Roosevelt, author Edith Wharton, artist William Merritt Chase, and actress Julia Marlowe. Ben-Yusuf also created Pictorialist-inspired artwork like The Odor of Pomegranates (1899; see fig.), an allegory informed by the myth of Persephone and the idea of the pomegranate as a tantalizing but odourless fruit. Ben-Yusuf was included in an exhibition organized by the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the in London in 1896 and continued to exhibit in the group’s annual exhibitions until 1902. Her photographs were exhibited at the National Academy of Design in 1898 and at the Camera Club of New York in ...

Article

(Wilhelm)

(b Rotterdam, July 13, 1873; d Goirle, May 4, 1959).

Dutch photographer. He first studied painting at the Akademie van Beeldende Kunsten, Rotterdam (1892–6). In 1901 he started to work as a self-taught photographer, taking pictures of farmers and gypsies in the province of North Brabant, a typical subject for a pictorial photographer at the time. From 1907 to 1917 he worked in Rotterdam as a photographer, taking pictures of the town and its inhabitants. Pictorially the photographs bear comparison with the work of the Dutch Impressionists, the Hague school and George Hendrik Breitner. Their picturesque quality is enhanced by the use of the gum bichromate and oil pigment processes (see Photography, §I).

Berssenbrugge’s portraits were unusual for their spontaneity, lack of artistic background and rejection of retouching. He insisted, however, on the use of certain printing techniques, in particular his own so-called ‘Fototechnick’. Among his best portraits are those of members of contemporary artistic circles, for example that of the violinist ...

Article

Hans Christian Adam

(b Breslau, ?1803/4; d Dresden, Feb 20, 1850).

German photographer. Son of the painter Raphael Biow (1771–1836), he was initially a painter, lithographer and writer. He opened the first photographic studio in Hamburg in 1841 and worked with Carl Ferdinand Stelzner from 1842 to 1843. A series of 46 daguerreotypes (3 extant) of the Great Fire of Hamburg in 1842 has been attributed to Biow (Kaufhold, 1989) and forms an early example of photographic reportage. Travelling to cities such as Berlin, Frankfurt and Dresden, he took portraits of the famous, including Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm, Alexander von Humboldt (1847) and Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia (all Hamburg, Mus. Kst. & Gew.). In 1848 he photographed the members of the Frankfurt National Assembly for his portfolio work Deutsche National-Gallerie, containing lithographic reproductions of his daguerreotypes. Kempe describes Biow as the ‘first photographer to collect people’. The essential quality of his photographs is their monumental unity. He used larger formats than other daguerreotypists; his plate size ranged from 216×162 mm to 270×320 mm....

Article

Patricia Strathern

French family of photographers. Louis-Auguste Bisson (Bisson aîné, Bisson fils; b Paris, 1814; d Paris, 1876) studied under Louis Daguerre and began to photograph professionally in 1840. He made 200 daguerreotypes of human types and in 1849–51 produced portraits of 900 members of the Assemblée Nationale. He also photographed Classical monuments and sculpture. He was a founder-member of the Societé Française de Photographie and became official photographer to Pope Pius IX. His brother Auguste-Rosalie Bisson (Bisson jeune, Bisson fils; b Paris, 1826; d Paris, 1900), with whom Louis-Auguste worked (as Bisson frères) on many projects, frequently worked in Switzerland, where he made magnificent photographs during the first and second photographic ascents of Mont Blanc (e.g. The Ascent of Mont Blanc: The Passage des Echelles, 1862; see Berger-Levrault, pl. 24). He travelled in Egypt in 1869, producing 450 photographs in nine months. He photographed the siege of Paris in ...

Article

Patricia Strathern

(b Lille, Aug 2, 1802; d Lille, April 28, 1872).

French photographer. A chemist by training, he learnt about William Henry Fox Talbot’s negative/positive calotype process in 1846 and devoted himself to perfecting the technique. An early example of his work is the picture of a Young Woman Knitting in a Drawing Room (before 1847; see Berger-Levrault cat., no. 25a). He did research into ways of improving darkroom techniques and processes, and he was the first to propose developing the positive print and printing on albumen paper, in 1851 (see Photography, §I). That same year, with his associate Hippolyte Fockedey, he founded the Imprimerie Photographique in Lille, the first large-scale photographic printers. At a time when photographic albums and books illustrated with photographs were very popular in Europe, his business was a great success. The first work to be produced was a series of 36 photographic albums, with three issues a month. He published albums of his own work as well as that of famous contemporary photographers such as ...

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Schielo, June 13, 1865; d Berlin, Dec 9, 1932).

German photographer. He studied as a sculptor and modeller in the ironworks and foundry at Mägdesprung from 1882 to 1884 and then at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berlin (1884–90). Between 1890 and 1896 he travelled to Italy, Greece and North Africa with Professor M. Meurer (1839–1916), who had a theory that natural forms were inherently reproduced in art. With funds from the Prussian government, Blossfeldt made a series of plant photographs for use in education. In 1898 he was given a teaching post at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Berlin, where he set up an archive for plant photographs. In the 1920s his photographs became very popular, and a collection, Urformen der Kunst, was published. They were seen as forerunners of Neue Sachlichkeit. It was not only the clearcut quality of the reproductions that won him esteem, but also the way in which the plant was revealed as the basis for a formal language of construction that could also be applied to objects and architecture. More of his photographs were published in ...