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Paul Vogt and Ita Heinze-Greenberg

International movement in art and architecture, which flourished between c. 1905 and c. 1920, especially in Germany. It also extended to literature, music, dance and theatre. The term was originally applied more widely to various avant-garde movements: for example it was adopted as an alternative to the use of ‘Post-Impressionism’ by Roger Fry in exhibitions in London in 1910 and 1912. It was also used contemporaneously in Scandinavia and Germany, being gradually confined to the specific groups of artists and architects to which it is now applied.

Expressionism in the fine arts developed from the Symbolist and expressive trends in European art at the end of the 19th century. The period of ‘classical Expressionism’ began in 1905, with the foundation of the group Brücke, Die, and ended c. 1920. Although in part an artistic reaction both to academic art and to Impressionism, the movement should be understood as a form of ‘new ...

Article

Graham F. Barlow

In 

Article

F. B. Sear

In 

Article

Graham F. Barlow, F. B. Sear, Meg Twycross, Roland Wolff, Marian C. Donnelly, Marie-Françoise Christout, John Orrell, Stanley Wells, Isidre Bravo, Marjoke de Roos, Jérôme de la Gorce, James Fowler, John Earl, Pieter van der Merwe and Roger Pinkham

In 

Article

John R. Neeson

Installation art is a hybrid of visual art practices including photography, film, video, digital imagery, sound, light, performance, happenings, sculpture, architecture, and painted and drawn surfaces. An installation is essentially site specific, three-dimensional, and completed by the interaction of the observer/participant in real time and space. The point of contention with any definition concerns the site specificity, ephemerality, and consequently ‘collectability’ of the work itself. One view has it that the category installation is presupposed on the transitory and impermanent, the second that an installation can be collected and re-exhibited as a conventional work of art.

In either case installation had its genesis in the environments and happenings devised by artists in the 1950s in New York and Europe (Nouveau Réalisme in France, Arte Povera in Italy). These in turn had antecedents in the architectural/sculptural inventions such as the various Proun rooms of El Lissitzky and the Merzbau of Kurt Schwitters...

Article

Nadja Rottner

French critic and philosopher Nicolas Bourriaud adopted the term ‘relational aesthetics’ in the mid-1990s to refer to the work of a selected group of artists, and what he considers their novel approach to a socially conscious art of participation: an art that takes as its content the human relations elicited by the artwork. Its key practitioners, most of them emerging in the 1990s, include Rirkrit Tiravanija , Philippe Parreno (b 1964), Liam Gillick, Pierre Huyghe, Maurizio Cattelan, Carsten Höller , and Vanessa Beecroft . For example, Carsten Höller installed Test Site (2006) at the Tate Modern in London so that visitors could enjoy the amusement park thrill of large playground slides in the museum’s Turbine Hall, and bond with fellow viewers over their experience. Bourriaud’s collected writings in Relational Aesthetics (1998, Eng. edn 2002) helped to spark a new wave of interest in participatory art.

While Bourriaud omits acknowledging the historical roots of relational art, Marxist-influenced critiques of the changing conditions of modern life, and arguments for art’s ability to improve man’s relationship with reality have a long history in 20th-century art. Critics Walter Benjamin and Siegfried Kracauer were among the first to developed new models for an art of politicized participation in the 1920s. The relational art of the 1990s and early 2000s is a continuation and an extension of traditions of participatory art throughout the 20th century (such as ...

Article

Theatre  

Graham F. Barlow, F. B. Sear, Meg Twycross, Roland Wolff, Marian C. Donnelly, Marie-Françoise Christout, John Orrell, Stanley Wells, Isidre Bravo, Marjoke de Roos, Jérôme de la Gorce, James Fowler, John Earl, Pieter van der Merwe and Roger Pinkham

Place or structure for drama and performance.

Graham F. Barlow

Architectural theatre structures developed after years of experiment during which performances were conducted in flexible impermanent environments or in buildings designed for other purposes. When dramas involved communities in state celebration of occasional religious festivities, climatic and seasonal considerations dictated the time of performance. The ancient theatres of Greece and Rome ( see §II ), the impermanent medieval rounds, processional wagon stages ( see §III, 1 ) and the public playhouses of northern Europe were roofless, relying on favourable weather conditions and daylight to illuminate the performances. As social conditions and patterns of leisure changed, performances were also given in the winter season, and theatres became enclosed. They were lit first by candles and oil, then gas and finally electricity. Although in general theatrical practitioners determine on-stage technical requirements, the structure and decoration of the auditorium and exterior is determined by the patrons. From the 16th century aristocratic ...