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Article

R. W. A. Bionda

[Flor; Pieter Florentius Nicolaas Jacobus]

(b Surabaya, Java, June 9, 1864; d The Hague, June 9, 1925).

Dutch painter, illustrator and printmaker. He moved to the Netherlands c. 1875, and was taught first by Johan Hendrik Frederik Conrad Nachtweh (1857–1941). He attended the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam from 1883 to 1888, studying under August Allebé and Barend Wijnveld (1820–1902). He then spent a year studying life drawing at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp under Charles Verlat before returning to Amsterdam, where he initially applied himself to painting landscapes in the countryside around The Hague and in Nunspeet in Gelderland in the style of the Hague school.

Arntzenius settled in The Hague in 1892. He was particularly active as a painter of Impressionist townscapes in both oil and watercolour from c. 1890 to 1910. His crowded street scenes with their misty, rainy atmosphere, such as The Spuistraat (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), were particularly successful and despite their greater emphasis on intimacy and tonality are reminiscent of the work of George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls. Arntzenius may have collaborated with ...

Article

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

(b Prague, April 9, 1858; d Prague, May 23, 1934).

Bohemian etcher, illustrator, painter and writer. As the daughter of František Augustín Braun, a prominent Bohemian politician, she was able to play a significant role in Bohemia’s cultural life at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, especially in the area of Czech–French cultural relations. She was a frequent visitor to Paris, where her elder sister, who was married to the writer Elémir Bourges, lived. She was instrumental in familiarizing Bohemian artists with French culture and introduced them to such prominent artists as Rodin, Redon and others. In Bohemia she was much to the fore in bringing writers and artists together and in discovering such artists as František Bílek. She painted landscapes and together with her teacher Antonín Chittussi established contacts in France with members of the Barbizon school. She was, however, primarily an etcher and illustrator and she specialized in etchings of Old Prague, for example ...

Article

Lewis Johnson

[Phiz]

(b London, July 12, 1815; d Hove, W. Sussex, July 8, 1882).

English illustrator, etcher and painter. Browne’s only formal education consisted of sporadic attendance at the St Martin’s Lane Academy life class and apprenticeship to the line-engraver William Finden. In 1834 he cancelled his indenture and established an illustrators’ workshop with fellow apprentice Robert Young, producing etchings and watercolours in preference to the more laborious line-engravings. He won the Silver Isis medal of the Society of Arts in 1833 for his etching, John Gilpin’s Ride. He also produced illustrations for Sunday under Three Heads (1836), an anti-Sabbatarian pamphlet published pseudonymously by Charles Dickens, who later preferred Browne to Thackeray as collaborator in the production of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club. Initially The Pickwick Papers was merely meant to accompany etchings of pastimes of contemporary London by Robert Seymour (1798–1836), but after Seymour’s suicide Dickens took charge and made them a narrative with illustrations in monthly parts. Symptomatic of this accommodation of image to prose is Browne signing himself first ‘Nemo’ and then ‘Phiz’ (a depicter of physiognomies) to harmonize with Dickens’s ‘Boz’. Browne played an important part, for instance, in the portrayal of Sam Weller, whom he made less wiry, less an example of what Dickens called ‘loutish humour’, but more resilient and knowingly ironical....

Article

Colette E. Bidon

(b Cuisery, Saône-et-Loire, April 24, 1862; d Saulieu, Côte d’Or, Oct 29, 1928).

French painter, illustrator and printmaker. He was taught by his father, Victor Bussière, a decorative painter in Mâcon. He went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and then to Paris, where he studied in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. During further studies under Puvis de Chavannes, he came into contact with Gustave Moreau. Symbolist paintings followed, drawing on French legend, as in the Song of Roland (exh. Salon 1892), and Nordic myth (Valkyries, exh. Salon 1894); he exhibited at the Symbolist Salon de la Rose+Croix, 1893–5. In 1905 he rented a studio at Grez-sur-Loing on the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau. Paintings such as the Rhine Maidens (1906; Mâcon, Mus. Mun. Ursulines) drew on observations of the forest, populating its streams with adolescent water nymphs. Such studies of the female nude—a lifelong speciality of Bussière’s—uphold a rigorous draughtsmanship that is yet not devoid of sensuality....

Article

Gerardo Pérez Calero

(b Madrid, 1823; d 1897).

Spanish painter, watercolourist and illustrator. He trained at the Escuela de Nobles Artes in Seville (1833–40) and subsequently at the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid. He became a member of the Academia de S Isabel de Hungria of Seville in 1848, where he taught from 1859 and reformed the teaching of art. His early work shows traces of Neo-classicism, although his art is essentially based on Romanticism. Between 1851 and 1861 he concentrated on portrait painting, depicting mainly female subjects or children; examples include Youth with a Dog (Seville, Neana Col.), Self-portrait (Seville, Mus. B.A.) and Josefa Garvey (Seville, priv. col.). He was an important link between Romanticism and Realism and stimulated a renewed interest in history painting in Spain, a genre he established at the Exposición Nacional in 1856 with his painting Christopher Columbus in the Convent of La Rábida (Madrid, Pal. de las Cortes), which was awarded first prize. He won the same prize in ...

Article

Geoffrey Ashton

(b Holborn, London, April 12, 1770; d Kensington, London, May 10, 1854).

English engraver and painter. He worked as an apprentice fishmonger, a lawyer’s clerk, a house painter and a bookseller, before he began painting miniatures and watercolour copies of popular engravings. He also had a talent for mezzotint engraving, and this career came to a well-publicized climax in 1819 with the appearance of the large mezzotint after George Henry Harlow’s The Court for the Trial of Queen Katharine (exh. RA 1817; Sudeley Castle, Glos), owned by Thomas Welsh. Because of its large size and the serious nature of the subject, Harlow had intended this work to be seen as a history painting, but some observers felt that it was merely theatrical. Nevertheless, Harlow’s attempt to create a history painting out of a theatrical scene haunted Clint during his subsequent artistic career and inspired his most important painting The Last Scene in ‘A New Way to Pay Old Debts’ (exh. RA 1820...

Article

Paul Nicholls

(b Milan, May 20, 1852; d Milan, Jan 23, 1917).

Italian painter, printmaker, illustrator and architect. Although he was the nephew of the painter Mauro Conconi (1815–60), he studied architecture at the Accademia di Brera and the Scuola Politecnica in Milan. His pictorially imaginative approach reflected the artistic ideals of the contemporary Italian writer Giuseppe Rovani. Despite having failed in his first competition, Conconi embarked in 1876 on an architectural project for Palazzo Marino, Milan, together with the architect Guido Pisani Dossi. Courtyard of the Palazzo Marino, an evocative etching conceived as part of the project (untraced; see Giolli, pl. xxxv), was shown in 1877 at the Brera exhibition in Milan and also at the Salon in Paris, through the architect Luca Beltrami, who was resident there at that time. After collaborating briefly in the construction of the Palazzo Turati in Milan, Conconi entered two competitions for public monuments: the first, in 1880, to commemorate the Milanese anti-Austrian uprising of ...

Article

Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Feb 28, 1865; d Oberammergau, Aug 17, 1954).

German painter, medallist, designer and illustrator. He trained as a painter in the Munich Akademie from 1884, and initially won fame in this art with large decorative schemes on mythological or religious themes (e.g. Bacchanal, c. 1888; Munich, Villa Schülein) and portraits painted in a broad, realistic manner (e.g. Elise Meier-Siel, 1889; Munich, Schack-Gal.). He taught at the Munich Kunstgewerbeschule from 1902 to 1910. In 1905 he taught himself die-engraving and began making struck and cast medals, producing in all some 200, which combine his decorative abilities with the harsher style of his younger contemporaries (e.g. the bronze medal of Anton von Knoezinger, 1907; see 1985 exh. cat., no. 23). In 1907 and 1927 he produced models for coinage. Dasio also worked as a poster designer and book illustrator, as well as designing for stained glass and jewellery. The decorative symbolism of his earlier work in black and white (e.g. the cover for ...

Article

Donald A. Rosenthal

(b Bordeaux, July 16, 1804; d Paris, Feb 18, 1868).

French painter, illustrator and writer. His early training was as a theatrical scene painter and a designer of lithographic illustrations. In Bordeaux he studied with Pierre Lacour (ii) (1778–1859) and worked with Thomas Olivier (1772–1839), chief scene designer at the Grand-Théâtre. He subsequently studied in Paris in the studio of the landscape and history painter Julien-Michel Gué (1789–1843) and worked for the decorators of the Théâtre Italien.

From 1827 Dauzats provided lithographic designs for Isidore-Justin-Séverin Taylor’s series Voyages pittoresques et romantiques dans l’ancienne France (1820–78). He travelled in the French provinces, particularly Champagne, Dauphiné and Languedoc, often sketching the medieval monuments that had come into vogue during the Romantic period.

Dauzats also collaborated on lithographs for many other publications, including Taylor’s Voyage en Orient. For this last project Dauzats travelled to Egypt, Syria, Palestine and Turkey in 1830, a trip that he described in his book ...

Article

Christopher Masters

(b Montefiore Dell’Aso, nr Ascoli Piceno, Jan 6, 1874; d Rome, Feb 7, 1928).

Italian painter, illustrator and wood-engraver. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Bologna (1888–92) and at the Scuola di Decorazione Pittorica at the Museo Artistica Industriale in Rome (1892–5). De Carolis began painting en plein-air in the Roman Campagna under the influence of Nino Costa’s group, In Arte Libertas, with whom he exhibited in 1897. At the Venice Biennale of 1899 he exhibited allegorical paintings inspired by the Pre-Raphaelites. De Carolis became a distinguished wood-engraver and illustrator, working with such writers as Giovanni Pascoli and Gabriele D’Annunzio (for whom he also created stage designs). He himself wrote essays on art for various periodicals, including Hermes and Rinascimento. His greatest achievements, however, were in decorative painting. While creating mythological frescoes at the Salone del Consiglio Provinciale at Ascoli Piceno (1907–9), De Carolis, together with the architect Alfredo Brizzi, won the competition (1908...

Article

Dora Pérez-Tibi

(b Le Havre, June 3, 1877; d Forcalquier, Basses-Alpes, March 23, 1953).

French painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From the age of 14 he was employed as a book-keeper, but at the same time he developed his innate gift for drawing at evening classes at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre,given by the Neo-classical painter Charles Lhuillier (?1824–98). He discovered the work of Eugène Boudin, Poussin and Delacroix, whose Justice of Trajan (1840; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.) was ‘a revelation and certainly one of the most violent impressions’ of his life (Lassaigne, Eng. trans., p. 16). In 1900, with a grant from Le Havre, he joined his friend Othon Friesz in Paris and enrolled at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Léon Bonnat. At the Musée du Louvre he studied the art of Claude Lorrain, to whom he painted several Homages between 1927 and 1947 (e.g. 1927; Nice, Mus. Masséna). His encounter with works by van Gogh at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune and with Impressionism at Durand-Ruel is reflected in such early works as ...

Article

Laurie A. Stein

(b Hamburg, Nov 19, 1865; d Badenweiler, June 11, 1902).

German designer, illustrator and painter. He trained as a businessman before entering the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Hamburg. He studied at the Kunst- und Gewerbeschule in Nuremberg and from 1885 attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. His early paintings are naturalistic landscapes but around 1890 he shifted towards Symbolism (e.g. the Four Ages of Life, 1893–4; untraced). In 1894 he decided to devote himself to the decorative arts. Encouraged by Justus Brinckmann, a collector and museum director, and Friedrich Deneken (later Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum, Krefeld), Eckmann studied the Japanese woodcut collection at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. Using traditional Japanese techniques, he began producing his own woodcut designs in 1895. Three Swans on Dark Water (1895; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) reflects a general preoccupation with late 19th-century music, art and literature with swans as symbolic images, and they were a frequent motif in many of his subsequent works. Eckmann’s woodcuts, as well as ornamental borders, vignettes, bookplates and other graphic designs, were illustrated in such periodicals as ...

Article

Aimo Reitala

(Gustaf Aristides)

(b Kiiala Estate, nr Porvoo [Swed. Borgå], July 21, 1854; d Haikko, nr Porvoo, Aug 18, 1905).

Finnish painter, illustrator and etcher. He was Finland’s leading artist in the late 19th century, introducing French influences into Finnish art but also helping to gain a broader international interest in his country’s culture. He was not a great innovator, however, and although his reputation in Finland remained firm, international recognition dwindled after his death until the renewal of interest in realism that took place in the late 20th century.

Edelfelt’s father, Carl Albert Edelfelt, was a member of the Swedish aristocracy who had moved to Finland as a young man, eventually rising to the position of General Director in the Department of Housing, while his mother, Alexandra Edelfelt, was an acquaintance of Finland’s national poet, J. L. Runeberg. She played an important role in instilling in Edelfelt the romantic idealism that became the guiding principle of his life and art. In 1869, while still at school, Edelfelt began taking classes at the School of Drawing established by the Finnish Arts Association in Helsinki, and from ...

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Article

Theo Cowdell

(b Edinburgh, April 4, 1880; d London, Dec 30, 1969).

Scottish painter, printmaker and illustrator. After studying at Daniel Stewart’s College, Edinburgh, he was apprenticed as a lithographic draughtsman and designer from 1894 to 1900 and studied part-time at the Royal Institute of Art, Edinburgh. He worked in London as a medical illustrator from 1900 to 1902, and then as a commercial artist, joining the staff of the Illustrated London News (1903–7). He illustrated limited editions of the classics, including Thomas Malory’s Morte d’Arthur (London, 1910), Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales (London, 1912) and Homer’s The Odyssey (London, 1924).

Flint established his reputation with watercolour landscapes of Scotland, France, Italy and Spain, many of them containing references to local customs, as in Ascension Day, Catalonia (Eton, Berks, Coll.). Having produced landscapes of Spain from 1921, he became particularly associated with figure studies of girls either nude or in Spanish costume. His delight in the female form also found expression in a book of caprices, ...

Article

Alicia Craig Faxon

(b Reims, Oct 23, 1852; d Paris, July 11, 1931).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator. Around 1860 he moved with his family to Paris, where he was taught by Jacquesson de la Chevreuse (1839–1903), Jean Baptiste Carpeaux and André Gill. He participated in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71) and was a friend of the poets Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud; the latter is the presumed subject of a portrait (1874; priv. col., see 1982 exh. cat., no. 1) that may have influenced Manet’s late portrait of Mallarmé (1876; Paris, Louvre). Forain first met Manet through his friendship with Degas in the early 1870s at the salon of Nina de Callias. He continued to associate with Manet, meeting the group of young Impressionists at the Café Guerbois and the Café de la Nouvelle Athènes. In 1878 Forain painted a small gouache, Café Scene (New York, Brooklyn Mus.), which probably influenced Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère (...

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Sibylle Einholz

In 

Article

(b Birmingham, March 15, 1863; d Waverley, Oct 1, 1930).

Australian painter, etcher and illustrator, also active in England. In his formative years he undertook illustrative commissions for the Picturesque Atlas of Australasia, as well as for the Australian Town and Country Journal and other publications. For a time he painted with his friends Tom Roberts, Arthur Streeton and Charles Conder at their camps around Mosman, or on trips to Richmond and along the Hawkesbury River. In his best paintings of this period he achieved a lyricism and sure handling of paint that resembles the work of Conder. During this period he also became interested in etching. In 1900 he moved to New York and the following year he travelled to London, where he continued to work as a black-and-white artist with the London Graphic and Black and White. He painted landscapes depicting picturesque sights and developed an interest in monotypes, using the delicacy of this medium to create soft, low-key images of atmospheric subjects. He worked in the tradition of English landscape painters, such as John Constable and John Sell Cotman, producing calm, quiet, understated images....

Article

Régis Marin

(b Besançon, Jan 6, 1806; d Paris, Dec 11, 1894).

French painter, lithographer, illustrator and collector. The son of a blacksmith, he attended the school of drawing in Besançon. He left for Paris and in 1828–9 frequented the Ecole des Beaux-Arts while executing various minor works. He made his début at the Salon in 1831 with a number of drawings. He established himself at the Salons of 1833 and 1834 with such sentimental compositions as Henry IV Writing Verses to Gabrielle, St Lambert at Versailles, Count de Comminges, Fortune-telling and such portraits as Laviron and The Blacksmith (1886; unless otherwise stated, all works are in Besançon, Mus. B.-A. & Archéol.; many drawings in Lille, Mus. B.-A. and Rouen, Mus. B.-A.). His portrait of the Phalansterist Fourier (1836) confirmed the success he had achieved as a history painter with the Last Moments of Leonardo da Vinci (1835).

In 1836 Gigoux travelled to Italy with his students ...