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Mark H. Sandler


(b Kyoto, March 3, 1844; d Kyoto, February 20, 1895).

Japanese painter, book illustrator and art educator. Born the fourth son of Yasuda Shirobei, a Kyoto moneylender, the young Bairei was adopted into the Kōno family. In 1852 he began his artistic training under the Maruyama-school painter, Nakajima Raishō (1796–1871). After Raishō’s death, Bairei studied with the Shijō-school master Shiokawa Bunrin (1808–77). He also studied Chinese literature and calligraphy with Confucian scholars. In 1873 his talent was officially recognized when he was included among the painters selected to show at the second Kyoto Exhibition.

In 1878 he and the painter Mochizuki Gyokusen (1834–1913) successfully petitioned the governor of Kyoto Prefecture to establish the Kyoto Prefectural Painting School (Kyōto Fu Gagakkō) in 1880. Bairei was appointed instructor in the Kanō and Tōyō Sesshū styles of ink painting (suibokuga; see Japan §VI 4., (iii)), but in 1881 he resigned his post to open a private art academy. Among his students were ...


Stephen Addiss

[Kameda Chōkō; Kameda Hōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1752; d Edo, 1826).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and book illustrator. The son of an Edo merchant, he studied calligraphy from a very early age under the noted Chinese-style calligrapher Mitsui Shinna (1700–82). He also received a Confucian education, unusual at that time for a merchant’s son. From about 1765 to 1774 Bōsai trained under Inoue Kinga (1732–84), an influential Confucian scholar of eclectic doctrines as well as a painter and calligrapher, at the Seijūkan, a private academy near Yokohama. Bōsai opened a Confucian academy in Edo in 1774. In 1790, however, the Tokugawa shogunate issued an edict aimed at curtailing the popularity of such schools as Bōsai’s, where students were encouraged to develop their own moral philosophy rather than accept the government-sponsored Confucianism of the Chinese Song-period (ad 960–1279) philosopher Zhu Xi. Bōsai gradually lost his pupils and in 1797 closed his school.

Bōsai’s artistic activity increased from ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[Suzuki Hozumi; Shikojin, Chōeiken]

(b ?Edo [now Tokyo], ?1725; d Edo, 1770).

Japanese printmaker, book illustrator and painter. A central figure in the development of ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) woodblock printmaking during the mid-Edo (1600–1868) period (see Japan §X 3., (iii)), Harunobu’s most important contribution was the introduction of the first full-colour printing technique to Japan. Stylistically, the new image of feminine beauty that Harunobu created in his bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) single-sheet prints influenced a generation of ukiyoe artists. Like many Edo period ukiyoe masters, Harunobu left few clues to his identity. He was probably born into the chōnin (merchant and artisan) class. An entry referring to Harunobu’s death in the Nishikawaka kakochō (‘Death registry of the Nishikawa family’) indicates that he had a close association with the family of the Kyoto ukiyoe artist Nishikawa Sukenobu. His treatment of trees, shrubs and rocks in his bird-and-flower (kachō) painting on folding screens (...



Karen L. Brock

(fl c. 1405–23).

Japanese painter and Zen monk. Contemporary biographical information about Josetsu is limited to two references. A brief entry dated 1448 in the diary of the Onryōken, a subtemple of Shōkokuji in Kyoto, mentions that in around 1416 Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimochi consulted with Josetsu about going to the island of Shikoku in search of stone for the carving of a stele in commemoration of Shōkokuji’s founder, Musō Soseki. The entry makes no mention of Josetsu as a painter, but it suggests his acquaintance with Yoshimochi and an association with Shōkokuji, which was an important centre in the development of ink painting in the Muromachi period (1333–1568) (see Japan §VI 4., (iii)). A colophon by the otherwise unknown Kanjōsō on Josetsu’s Sankyōzu (‘The three doctrines’; Kyoto, Ryōsokuin) states that the painting is by ‘[Jo]Setsu’ (clumsy-like), and that the painter was given this name by Zekkai Chūshin (1336–1405...


Joan H. O’Mara

Japanese paintings or woodblock prints depicting famous poets and poetesses often accompanied by the inscription of their names, with or without additional biographical information, and representative verses. By integrating calligraphy, poetry and painting in a single format, kasen’e (‘pictures of poetic immortals’) illustrate well the close interrelationship between these three art forms.

Originally the poets and poetesses designated in kasen’e as sages or ‘immortals’ (kasen) were accomplished masters of waka, the 31-syllable Japanese poetic form (also called tanka). According to tradition, a debate over the merits of various waka poets led the poet and critic Fujiwara no Kintō (966–1041) to name 31 men and 5 women from the Nara (ad 710–94) and Heian (794–1185) periods as ‘poetic immortals’. Although the kasen were selected, canonized and anthologized during the Heian period, the earliest surviving depictions date from the Kamakura period (1185–1333...


Frank L. Chance


(b Ōmi Province [now Shiga Prefect.], 1796; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1858).

Japanese painter, poet, and illustrator. The last master of the Rinpa school of decorative painting, he moved to Edo as a youth and became the leading pupil of Sakai Hōitsu, the instigator of the Rinpa revival in the early 19th century. Kiitsu was adopted into the family of Suzuki Reitan (1782–1817), another of Hōitsu’s pupils, and married his sister. When Reitan died, Kiitsu inherited his samurai rank and became a salaried retainer of the Sakai family. By the age of 30 Kiitsu was collaborating with Hōitsu on the compilation of Kōrin hyakuzu (‘One hundred pictures by Kōrin’). From mere imitation of Hōitsu, Kiitsu evolved a more personal style. He adopted the elegant compositions and brilliantly opaque colours of the Rinpa masters (see fig.), as in the exquisite pair of six-panel folding screens Cranes (Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.), but was also affected by the decorative naturalism of the Maruyama–Shijō schools (...


Atsushi Tanaka

(b Osaka, Oct 13, 1887; d Ashiya, Hyōgo Prefect., Feb 13, 1931).

Japanese painter and illustrator. He distinguished himself in painting at middle-school. In 1907 he entered the department of Nihonga (Japanese-style) painting at the Tokyo School of Fine Art and later transferred to the department of Yōga (Western-style) painting. After graduating in 1914 he returned to Osaka and continued to paint. In 1919 he entered his first exhibited work in the 6th Nikakai (Second Division Society) show. The painting, the N Family, received the Chogyū Prize. In the Nikakai exhibition of 1920 his portrait of the Young Girl Omme received the Nika Prize.

In 1921–2 Koide made his first trip to the West, travelling to Paris and Berlin and throughout southern France. This led to him abandoning his early style, which had been characterized by rigid compositions and dark tonalities, in favour of a more even, stronger brush style with a lighter palette; his works became lighter in spirit. In 1923...


Juliann Wolfgram


(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...


Burglind Jungmann

[cha T’aesu ]

(b 1529).

Korean painter . The few biographical references make it difficult to decide whether he should be considered a court or a literati painter. The art historian An Hwi-jun includes him among the latter on the basis of a passage in which he is listed together with the vice-director of the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ) Sin Se-rim (1521–83) as a well-known follower of the scholar–painter Kang Hŭi-an. In earlier texts Yi Pul-hae is also compared to the 15th-century court painter An Kyŏn. Yi Tong-ju sees a stylistic link between his paintings and a scroll (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) carrying the seal Bunsei (Jap.; Kor. Munch’ŏng). These comparisons with Kang Hŭi-an and the landscape painter Munch’ŏng suggest that Yi Pul-hae may have been a follower of a 15th-century Korean tradition influenced by Chinese painting of the Southern Song period (960–1279). An album leaf bearing the seal of Yi Pul-hae (Seoul, N. Mus.; see Kim, Choi and Im, pl. 51) depicts a scholar viewing the scene from a vantage-point. Behind him looms, as if from an unfathomable depth, an immense mountain peak. The composition of the picture as well as the broad, washed-over surface of the mountain, the structure of which is suggested only by the contours, recall the style of Xia Gui, the Chinese court painter of the Southern Song Academy. The trees enveloping the small figure with their branches like ‘crabs’ claws’ are, on the other hand, closer to the tradition of the Chinese painters Li Cheng and Guo Xi of the Northern Song period (...


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Oct 1, 1927).

Argentine painter, graphic designer, teacher and critic. After studying in Japan from 1935 to 1951 he returned to Argentina, remaining there until his move to New York in 1963. His paintings from 1952 were in the style of Art informel, with a calligraphic emphasis demonstrating his sympathy with oriental art, but around 1960 he moved towards a more gestural abstraction in works such as Painting No. 20 (1961; Buenos Aires, Mus. A. Mod.), using thicker paint and more subdued colours.

In 1964 Sakai began to use more geometric shapes in his pictures, and he continued to do so on moving in 1965 to Mexico, where he remained until 1977. His example opened the way to geometric abstraction in Mexico, where there was no real tradition of such work. In 1976, shortly before returning to New York, he began a series of paintings using the formal repetition of parallel undulating lines of strongly contrasting colour. From ...


James Cahill

revised by Vyvyan Brunst

[Ch’eng Shih-fa; Cheng Tong; Ch’eng T’ung]

(b Songjiang County, Shanghai Municipality, 1921; d Shanghai, Jul 17, 2007).

Chinese painter and illustrator. By his own account Cheng was determined from an early age to become a painter. Although his father died when Cheng was nine, support from relatives enabled him to enter the Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts in 1938, where he was trained in the traditional disciplines of landscape and bird-and-flower painting. He also took an interest in the work of modern Chinese masters. Following graduation, he worked briefly in a bank before joining the Shanghai Art Publishing Agency in 1952 as an illustrator. His assignments included New Year paintings and drawings for editions of short stories. Among his first successes was a series of plates for a contemporary edition of the 18th-century satirical classic Rulin waishi (“The scholars”) by Wu Jingzi, which in 1959 won a medal at the Leipzig International Book Exhibition (Eng. trans., Yang Hsien-yi and G. Yang, The Scholars, Beijing, 1957). However, his most impressive early achievement was a set of illustrations for another classic, Lu Xun’s ...


Akira Tatehata

(b Kōbe, March 13, 1919; d Paris, May 14, 1996).

Japanese painter. He entered Osaka Art School in 1933 but left it in mid-course. From 1937 to 1945 he worked at the publicity department of a railway company in Osaka as a graphic designer. After World War II he decided to become a painter. He went to Paris in 1952, where he studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière, and in the following year exhibited at the Salon d’Octobre. His abstract works of the early 1950s have a static, poetic picture surface with delicate texture. However, from 1957 a dramatic, bold element began to appear (e.g. Festival, 1960; Fukuoka, A. Mus.), involving simplified forms reminiscent of calligraphy. From then, he exhibited regularly at such exhibitions as the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles and the Salon de Mai. In the mid-1960s his style underwent a drastic change. Sugai produced compositions with dynamic movement, flat colour fields eliminating traces of brushstrokes, and sign-like forms with a clear outline. Such works as ...


Susumu Matsudaira

[Uemon; Jitokusō, Jitokusai, Bunkado, Ukyō, Saiō]

(b Kyoto, 1671; d Kyoto, 1750).

Japanese woodblock print designer, book illustrator and painter. Unlike most ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artists, who were based in Edo (now Tokyo), Sukenobu lived in the imperial capital Kyoto. He studied painting with Kanō Einō (1631–97), and possibly with Tosa Mitsusuke (see Tosa family §(1)). He first produced book illustrations for the celebrated Kyoto publisher Hachimonjiya Jishō (d 1745) in 1699. The earliest works attributed to Sukenobu are Yakusha kuchijamisen (‘Actor humming shamisen tune’; 3 vols; Tokyo, Waseda U.), a Yakusha hyōbanki (‘Record of the reputation of actors’; a discussion of actors’ performances and appearance) and the script for a kabuki play, Amidagaike Shin Teramachi (‘Amida pond in Shin Teramachi’). His earliest signed work is Shin kanninki (‘New patience story’; 7 vols; Tokyo, N. Diet Lib.), an ukiyo zōshi (‘tales of the floating world’; popular fiction). In the 1710s Sukenobu continued his close association with ...


Reiko Tomii

[ Tenmyōya ]

(b Musashino, Feb 10, 1966).

Japanese painter and graphic artist . Mostly self-taught, from childhood he loved to draw and he joined a high-school painting club. In 1983 the American film Wild Style (1982) inspired him to study hip-hop culture and become a graffiti artist. While working as a graphic designer of CD jackets at a record company, Tenmyouya submitted his art works to major competitive exhibitions for graphic artists such as Urbanart and JACA (Japan Association of Art and Culture’s visual art competition) and was often successful. His trapezoidal Manga Ukiyo-e series received a special award in JACA ’97 by reinterpreting the popular media of manga and ukiyo-e, as well as the life of modern yakuza outlaws, a popular TV and film subject. In 2000 Tenmyouya left his design job and had his first solo exhibition at a rental gallery, Harajuku, in Tokyo. He also found an outlet for his graphically oriented works in the print media, starting his monthly contribution of the ...


Mark H. Sandler

[Nishimura Shigenobu, Magosaburō; Meijōdō, Shūha]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1711; d Edo, 1785).

Japanese painter, print designer and book illustrator. One of the finest ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) printmakers active in the mid-18th century, Toyonobu was born into a samurai family. He may have studied under the printmaker Nishimura Shigenaga (?1697–1756), and many scholars identify him with the artist who styled himself Nishimura Magosaburō (before 1730) and Nishimura Shigenobu (1730–47). From 1747 until the end of his career as a print designer, he worked under the name Ishikawa Toyonobu. In the mid-1760s he inherited from his father-in-law an inn in Edo’s Kodenmachō district. As innkeeper, he employed the name that was used by successive heads of the family, Nukaya Shichibei. He largely abandoned his artistic activities in the last two decades of his life. Toyonobu’s early works reflect the influence of the Torii family school. Thus, his yakushae (‘pictures of actors’) and bijinga (‘pictures of beautiful women’) of the 1730s and early 1740s feature robust, columnar figures with heads held erect. His manner later changed considerably, and after ...