1-20 of 22 results  for:

  • Painting and Drawing x
  • Gardens and Landscape Design x
Clear all

Article

Andreas Kreul

(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...

Article

Catherine Lampert

(b Berlin, April 29, 1931).

British painter and printmaker of German birth. He was sent to England in 1939 and moved from school in Kent to London in 1947, where he began attending art classes at Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute and acting in fringe theatre. From 1947 to 1948 he studied at Borough Polytechnic under David Bomberg, whose teaching was especially valuable in its emphasis on risk and on seeking an organic, unified form. Auerbach continued in Bomberg’s evening life classes while at St Martin’s School of Art (1948–52). He considered his first original achievement to have been Summer Building Site (1952; Mrs P. Hill priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., p. 8), of a scene at Earls Court; this was rather geometric and painted in formal, prismatic colour, but much of his early work was thickly and laboriously impastoed in earth colours, as in Head of E. O. W. (1955...

Article

Nadine Pouillon

(b Château-Renault, Indre-et-Loire, April 24, 1873; d Montoire-sur-le-Loir, nr Vendôme, Aug 12, 1958).

French painter. Like many naive artists, he discovered his vocation for drawing and painting late in life. His work as a gardener in Touraine awakened his love of nature, and he educated himself by reading history and mythology and by travelling in central and western France. He was mobilized in World War I and was sent to Greece to take part in the Dardanelles campaign; on his return to France his drawing skills were recognized by the Army and he was put in charge of charting and rangefinding. It was this experience that encouraged him to become a painter in 1919.

Bauchant exhibited his work for the first time at the Salon d’Automne in 1921. His flower pictures were soon succeeded by subjects from history, such as Louis XI Having Mulberry Bushes Planted near Tours (1943; Paris, Pompidou), from mythology, as in Cleopatra, on her Way to Anthony (...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

Dana Arnold

[Du Perac, Stefano]

(b Bordeaux, c. 1525; d Paris, 1601).

French painter, engraver and garden designer. He went to Rome in 1550 and stayed there for over 20 years, soon becoming acknowledged as a first-rate engraver and designer. His work provides an invaluable record of later 16th-century Rome, telling much about the state of the ancient ruins, contemporary architecture and urban planning, especially the work of Michelangelo. Many of Dupérac’s engravings were published by Antoine Lafréry. Those depicting the work of Michelangelo were published in 1569 after the latter’s death (1564); they give a useful insight into Michelangelo’s original, unrealized intentions for such projects in Rome as the Capitoline Hill and St Peter’s. It has been shown that Dupérac designed and painted part of the decoration of the loggia of Pope Pius IV in the Vatican. His work as a painter continued on his return to France in 1570 when, after the publication of his Vues perspectives des jardins de Tivoli...

Article

Gerta Calmann

(b Heidelberg, Jan 30, 1708; d London, Sept 9, 1770).

German draughtsman and painter, active also in England. While working as a gardener, he used his free time to draw plants, persevering until he abandoned gardening altogether. His lifelong patron, Dr Christoph Jacob Trew (1695–1769) of Nuremberg, instructed him in botany and provided him with good-quality paper. Journeying, mainly on foot, through Switzerland and France, he learnt in Paris the technique of painting on vellum. In Holland he met Linnaeus (1707–78), to whose Hortus Cliffortianus (Amsterdam, 1737–8) he contributed several botanical illustrations and whose system of plant classification he made known by publishing a ‘tabella’ (Leiden, 1736).

In 1736 Ehret settled permanently in England. He first worked with Philip Miller (1691–1771), head of the Chelsea Physic Garden, whose sister-in-law he married, then found patrons among scientists who commissioned him to illustrate their botanical articles and travel books. He published his own engraved and hand-coloured plant-book, ...

Article

[P’yetro di Gonzaga]

(b Longarone, nr Venice, March 25, 1751; d St Petersburg, Aug 6, 1831).

Italian painter, stage designer and landscape designer, also active in Russia. He studied in Venice (1769–72) under Giuseppe Moretti and Antonio Visentini (1688–1782) and finished his education in Milan (1772–8), studying with the stage designers Bernardino, Fabrizio and Giovanni Antonio Galliari. He was considerably influenced by the works of Canaletto and Piranesi. He made his début as a stage designer in Milan at the Teatro alla Scala in 1779 and designed over 60 productions in Milan, Rome, Genoa and other Italian cities. From 1792 he worked in Russia, where he went on the recommendation of Prince Nikolay Yusupov, who was at that time the chief director of music and pageantry at the court of Catherine II.

In his stage designs Gonzago put into effect his theoretical principles, which he explained in the handbook Information à mon chef ou éclaircissement convenable du décorateur théâtral (St Petersburg, ...

Article

Cinzia Maria Sicca

(b Bridlington, bapt Jan 1, 1685; d London, April 12, 1748).

English architect, painter, landscape gardener and designer. He was the most exuberant and innovative architect and designer active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as a painter but was not particularly successful or remarkable in this work, showing greater skill as a draughtsman. As an architect he was highly versatile, practising in both the Palladian and Gothick styles, and this versatility extended to his work as a designer, which included interior decoration, furniture and silverware, book illustration, stage sets and gardens.

Kent was born into a poor family in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Nothing is known of his early education, nor of the circumstances that led to his apprenticeship to a coach-painter in Hull at about the age of 15. Kent is first recorded in London in 1709, when he applied for a passport to go to Italy. He was then 24 and, according to ...

Article

[Remee; Remy] [Vallemput, Remigius; Vanlimpitt, Remigeus]

(bapt Antwerp, Dec 19, 1607; d London, bur Nov 9, 1675).

Flemish (possibly French) painter, copyist, collector and dealer, active in England. In 1635 he was living in the newly developed area of Covent Garden, London; at that time he was closely associated with Anthony van Dyck and presumably assisted in his studio. Through his varied activities, van Leemput became a leading figure in the London art world, and he assembled a major collection of paintings and drawings. He bought extensively when Charles I’s collections were sold in 1649–51; his purchases included works attributed to Titian, Giorgione, Correggio and Andrea del Sarto. Later he acquired the great equestrian portrait by van Dyck of Charles I with M. de St Antoine (British Royal Col.), which he apparently attempted to sell in Antwerp but asked too high a price. It was still with him at the Restoration in 1660, when it was recovered from him for Charles II.

Although van Leemput painted original works, he was best known for his small-scale copies after van Dyck and others. A series of ‘14 … Ladies heads Copys by Remy’ (described thus in Queen ...

Article

David R. Coffin

(b Naples, c. 1513; d Ferrara, Oct 26, 1583).

Italian architect, painter, draughtsman and antiquary. He is best known for his designs for the Casino of Pius IV in the Vatican and his gardens for the Villa d’Este at Tivoli, which greatly influenced Renaissance garden design. His work reflects his interest in the reconstruction of Classical antiquity, although this was sometimes based on fragmentary information, and his painting and architecture are closely dependent on classicism with a richness of detail associated with Roman Imperial art.

He was presumably born into a noble family and probably moved to Rome in 1534. At first he was active producing decorative paintings for palaces: Giovanni Baglione recorded numerous houses in Rome with façades frescoed by Ligorio in a distinctive yellow monochrome in the manner of Polidoro da Caravaggio or Baldassare Peruzzi. The only extant example of his figurative painting is a fresco depicting the Dance of Salome (c. 1544; Rome, Oratory of S Giovanni Decollato). In ...

Article

Francine-Claire Legrand

(b Laeken, nr Brussels, Aug 9, 1845; d Laeken, Feb 4, 1921).

Belgian painter, decorative artist and draughtsman. A gardener’s son, he was brought up in a quiet suburb of Brussels, bordering the Parc Royal. He studied under the decorative artist Charles Albert (1821–89) and then, between 1860 and 1867, took a course in decorative design at the Brussels Académie. In 1864 he joined the studio of Jean-François Portaels to learn the techniques of modelling, painting from life and history painting. Having won the Belgian Prix de Rome in 1870, he travelled to Italy, where he was inspired by the work of Mantegna. His early work treated the working lives of the Belgian poor in a social realist manner influenced by Charles de Groux: for example The Peasants (Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.)

From 1878 to 1879 Mellery stayed on the island of Marken, in the Netherlands, in order to illustrate a book by Charles De Coster, but the writer’s death in ...

Article

(b Swansea, Dec 11, 1889; d Ipswich, Feb 8, 1982).

Welsh painter and horticulturist. He was a self-taught painter but attended the académies libres in Paris as a young man. With his companion, the painter Arthur Lett-Haines (1894–1978), he was a member of the art communities of Newlyn in Cornwall (1919–20), Paris (1921–6) and London (1926–39). From 1926 to 1932 Morris took part in the Society (see 7 & 5 Society). Although he had experimented with abstraction c. 1922, he resigned from the society when it moved away from representation. Between 1937 and c. 1975 Morris and Lett-Haines directed the distinctly non-academic East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing; in 1940 the school was moved to Morris’s home at Benton End, Hadleigh, Suffolk, where he also cultivated a garden and bred irises.

Morris’s paintings combine a strong sense of colour with pictorial economy, often with unusual tactility. Conveyed with great immediacy, a painting’s principal motif is usually juxtaposed boldly with a contrasting background. His subjects include still-lifes and flower paintings, such as ...

Article

Richard Jeffree

(fl 1730–65).

English painter, possibly of Spanish origin. Apart from his marriage in London in the late 1720s, no details of his life are known, although a number of signed and dated works survive. He is best known for two remarkable series of garden views, the earlier being a set of eight of the Gardens of Hartwell House, Bucks, one of them dated 1732 and another dated 1738 (all Aylesbury, Bucks Co. Mus.). The later series exists in more than one set and depicts the Gardens of Studley Royal and Fountains Abbey, Yorks (e.g. four sold at Christie’s, 11 April 1980, lot 92, one signed and dated 1762). There are also several signed and dated examples of his Covent Garden Market (version, 1735; Woburn Abbey, Beds; version, 1737; London, Tate). Nebot also painted small genre scenes on copper and one signed and dated portrait of Thomas Coram (1741; London, Foundling Hosp.)....

Article

Anna Maria Fioravanti Baraldi

[Benvenuti, Giovanni Battista]

(b Ferrara; fl c. 1500–after 1527).

Italian painter. The name by which he is known is derived from his father’s occupation as a gardener (It. ortolano). A document of 1512, according to which he was then more than 25 years old, supports the hypothesis that Ortolano began his career in Ferrara around 1500. Initially he was influenced by the Quattrocento style of devotional paintings by Domenico Panetti (c. 1460–before 1513) and Michele di Luca dei Coltellini. Subsequently he was drawn to the classicism of Boccaccio Boccaccino and Garofalo, which gave his painting a particular gentleness and clarity of form equally reminiscent of Perugino, as is evident in Ortolano’s Virgin and Child (Paris, Louvre) and Holy Family (Rome, priv. col.). Another work dated to this early period is a lunette depicting the Pietà (1505–6; Ferrara, Pin. N.). Probably as a result of a journey to Venice with Garofalo, he introduced warmer colours and a greater emphasis on naturalism into his painting....

Article

Mariana Katzarova

[Pappasoff, Georges]

(b Yambol, Feb 2, 1894; d Vence, Alpes-Maritimes, April 23, 1972).

Bulgarian painter and writer, active in France. In 1913–14 he studied landscape gardening in Prague and Germany. At the beginning of his painting career he was strongly influenced by German Expressionism and, after having his first exhibition in Bulgaria at the Trapko Gallery, Sofia (1919), he arranged for a second one (1922) in Berlin. In 1923 he lived and exhibited in Geneva and from 1924 he moved permanently to France. He became a prominent artist in Paris and was, according to the French critic Jean-Paul Crespelle, one of the forerunners of Surrealism. His first works done in France are painted in a form of ‘geometric’ Surrealism composed of imaginary triangular shapes symbolizing the human body and its spiritual status. Gradually his works became more fully modelled and more colourfully intense as he began to move away from the expressionist tendencies of artists such as Paul Klee and Max Ernst. He experimented with the techniques of Cubism, Tachism and abstract art while at the same time retaining his colourful palette and keeping a reference to the figure. His paintings are done in series, each of which has a dominant theme (e.g. ...

Article

Elizabeth Allen

(b London, 1731; d London, Dec 18, 1810).

English painter and stage designer. From 1759 Richards was a very successful painter at Covent Garden, London, where he collaborated with Nicholas Thomas Dall (fl 1760–71; d 1777) and Giovanni Battista Cipriani, and from 1777 to 1803 he was the theatre’s Principal Painter. From 1762 he exhibited landscapes and ruin pieces at the Society of Artists of Great Britain, as well as a scene from a stage setting for the Maid of the Mill (New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.); engraved by William Woollett in 1768, it achieved great popularity. Richards exhibited at the Free Society of Artists from 1769 to 1783, and was a founder-member of the Royal Academy, where from 1769 to 1809 he exhibited capriccios and landscapes, and occasionally, early intimations of the picturesque, such as a Cascade at Hestercombe (signed and dated 1770; Stourhead, Wilts, NT). His watercolours, such as Orpington (1768...

Article

Jean de Cayeux

[Robert des Ruines]

(b Paris, May 22, 1733; d Paris, April 15, 1808).

French painter, draughtsman, etcher and landscape designer. He was one of the most prolific and engaging landscape painters in 18th-century France. He specialized in architectural scenes in which topographical elements derived from the buildings and monuments of ancient and modern Italy and of France are combined in often fantastic settings or fictitious juxtapositions. The fluid touch and rich impasto employed in his paintings, also shared by his friend Jean-Honoré Fragonard, are matched by the freedom of his numerous red chalk drawings and the few etchings that he is known to have produced.

Robert’s father was an official in the service of the Marquis de Stainville whose son, the Comte de Stainville (later Duc de Choiseul), became the young artist’s protector. According to Mariette, Robert learnt drawing as a pupil of the sculptor René-Michel (Michel-Ange) Slodtz, although other sources suggest, improbably, that he studied with the painter Pierre-Jacques Cazes. It is certain, however, that he received a classical education in Paris, at either the aristocratic Collège de Navarre or the Collège de Beauvais....

Article

Rococo  

Richard John and Ludwig Tavernier

A decorative style of the early to mid-18th century, primarily influencing the ornamental arts in Europe, especially in France, southern Germany and Austria. The character of its formal idiom is marked by asymmetry and naturalism, displaying in particular a fascination with shell-like and watery forms. Further information on the Rococo can be found in this dictionary within the survey articles on the relevant countries.

Richard John

The nature and limits of the Rococo have been the subject of controversy for over a century, and the debate shows little sign of resolution. As recently as 1966, entries in two major reference works, the Penguin Dictionary of Architecture and the Enciclopedia universale dell’arte (EWA), were in complete contradiction, one altogether denying its status as a style, the other claiming that it ‘is not a mere ornamental style, but a style capable of suffusing all spheres of art’. The term Rococo seems to have been first used in the closing years of the 18th century, although it was not acknowledged by the ...

Article

Susan Morris

(b Irthington, Cumbria, July 26, 1749; d London, March 22, 1831).

English painter. The son of a gardener to the Gilpin family, he studied under the animal painter Sawrey Gilpin. During a trip to Derbyshire with Gilpin he met George Greville, 2nd Earl of Warwick, who gave him financial support to go to Italy between 1776 and 1781. Smith spent 1778–9 in Naples and was otherwise based in Rome, where he explored the Campagna and made sketches with William Pars and Francis Towne. The strong greens and purples and crisp pen outlines of some of Smith’s watercolours are strongly influenced by Towne’s style. Smith and Towne travelled together across the Alps on their way back to England in 1781, after which Smith settled in Warwick. He contributed six views to Samuel Middiman’s Select Views in Great Britain (1784–5) and between 1784 and 1806 toured Wales 13 times in search of Picturesque and Sublime scenery. He also visited the Lake District between ...

Article

G. Komelova

(Vasil’yevich) [Vasil’yev]

(b Pokrovskaya, Tver’ province, Nov 27, 1823; d Pokrovskaya, April 22, 1864).

Russian painter and draughtsman. He came from a family of serfs and, as a youth, worked as a gardener on the Ostrovsky estate. He was a self-taught draughtsman and, between 1842 and 1847, was a pupil and assistant of the painter Aleksey Venetsianov, who owned and lived on a neighbouring estate. Venetsianov tried unsuccessfully to have Soroka released from serfdom. Under Venetsianov’s supervision, Soroka began by copying engravings by foreign masters; he also travelled about Tver’ province and produced paintings for churches. In his subsequent work, which included portraits, rural genre scenes, interiors and landscapes, Soroka closely followed Venetsianov’s form of poetic realism. Among examples of his early work are 15 pencil portraits of servants working for the Milyukov family (1842; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). These are relatively unsophisticated and somewhat severe and static representations of simple folk: the cook Gavriil Yevstif’yev, the potter Stepan Vasil’yev and the housekeeper ...