1-15 of 15 results  for:

  • 1500–1600 x
  • Architecture and Urban Planning x
Clear all

Article

Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b ?Munich, fl 1535; d Munich, 1567).

German sculptor, mason and medallist. In 1536 he became a master sculptor in Munich and shortly afterwards entered the service of Ludwig X, Duke of Bavaria. He moved to Landshut in 1537 to work on the construction of the Italian wing of the ducal Stadtresidenz. In 1555 he travelled to Neuburg an der Donau to oversee the shipment of stone for the palace’s chimneys. He was influenced by and may have assisted Thomas Hering, the sculptor of these chimneys (See under Hering, Loy). Also in 1555 he reverted to Munich citizenship.

The few surviving examples of his sculpture show him to have been an accomplished if somewhat derivative artist. Many seem to have been commissioned by Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria, who paid him an annual salary from 1558 (and perhaps as early as 1551) to 1567. Aesslinger’s limestone reliefs (both 1550) of the Massacre of the Innocents...

Article

Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff

[Franciscus]

(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...

Article

Charles Avery

[Brandini, Bartolomeo]

(b Gaiole in Chianti, Oct 17, 1493; d Florence, Feb 7, 1560).

Italian sculptor, painter and draughtsman . He was the son of Michelagnolo di Viviano (1459–1528), a prominent Florentine goldsmith who was in the good graces of the Medici and who taught Cellini and Raffaello da Montelupo. Baccio remained loyal to the Medici, despite their being in exile from 1494 to 1513, and this led to a flow of commissions after the elections to the papacy of Leo X (Giovanni de’ Medici) in 1513 and of Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici) a decade later; after Cosimo de’ Medici became Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1537, these increased still further. This political stance made him unpopular with most Florentines, including Michelangelo, who were Republican at heart, and this lay at the root of much of the adverse criticism—not always justified—that greeted Bandinelli’s statues.

Baccio seems to have had an ambitious and impatient temperament, which led to frequent changes of master and of direction when he was learning his art. Until ...

Article

Charles Robertson

[Suardi, Bartolomeo]

(b ?Milan, c. 1465; d Milan, 1530).

Italian painter and architect. He was one of the leading artists in Milan in the early 16th century. His early training as a goldsmith may indicate a relatively late start to his activity as a painter, and none of his work may be dated before 1490. The style of his early work parallels that of such followers of Vincenzo Foppa as Bernardino Butinone, Bernardo Zenale and Giovanni Donato da Montorfano. He assumed the name Bramantino very early in his career, indicating that he was in close contact with Donato Bramante, whose influence is uppermost in his early work.

Bramantino’s earliest surviving painting is probably the Virgin and Child (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.). It is an adaptation of a type of half-length Virgin with standing Christ Child well known in Milan. The linear emphasis and the dramatic treatment of light are aspects derived from Bramante’s work. Bramantino stressed graphic quality in this picture, and throughout his early work he was considerably influenced by Andrea Mantegna and by the visual aspects of prints. His ...

Article

Antonio Manno

[Giovannantonio]

(b San Gimignano, 1533; d Naples, 1609).

Italian sculptor, architect, draughtsman, antiquarian, engineer and decorator. He began his career as a goldsmith and engraver. He arrived in Rome in 1548 and the next year entered the workshop of the sculptor and architect Raffaele da Montelupo, where he worked mostly on wall decorations for mausoleums. Around this time he carved a statue of Hope for the tomb of Giulio del Vecchio in SS Apostoli, Rome. Between 1552 and 1564 he was in close contact with Michelangelo, and he may have participated with Guglielmo della Porta in the reconstruction of S Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome. Della Porta and Dosio associated with the artistic circle around the Carafa family, for whom they may have planned a chapel. In 1561 Dosio was working as a sculptor and stuccoist for the patrician Torquato de’ Conti. Other sculptural work in Rome includes a funerary monument with posthumous portrait bust for the poet Annibal Caro...

Article

Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

Article

Joanne A. Rubino

(b Recanati, 1580; d Recanati, 1655).

Italian sculptor, painter, architect and bronze caster. He is known primarily for his bronzes, which combine an adherence to traditional standards of 15th-century Lombardy and a move towards the more dramatic qualities of the Baroque. With his brother, Tarquino Jacometti (1570–1638), he was instructed in drawing and sculpting by his uncle, Antonio Calcagni, but the influence of his lifelong teacher Cristoforo Roncalli was always uppermost in his works. The brothers became business partners, collaborating in casting bronze low reliefs, fountains and baptismal fonts, but Pietro Paolo also produced individual items.

The Jacometti brothers collaborated in such bronze works as the fountain (1619–20) in the Piazza della Madonna, Loreto; the Galli fountain, Loreto; the fountain (1619) in the Piazza del Popolo, Faenza; and on fonts in Recanati Cathedral (1622) and S Giovanni Battista, Osimo (1622–8). Pietro Paolo also produced the bronze portrait of ...

Article

Jutland  

Harriet Sonne de Torrens

Mainland peninsula of modern-day Denmark and one of the three provinces (Jutland, Zealand and Skåne, southern Sweden) that constituted medieval Denmark. The conversion of the Danes to Christianity initiated a reorganization of the economic, social and legal structures of Denmark that would change the shape of Jutland dramatically between the 11th and 14th centuries. Under Knut the Great, King of Denmark and England (reg 1019–35), Jutland acquired a stable diocesan system (1060) that enabled a systematic collection of tithes and the growth of religious institutions between 1050 and 1250. During this period, agricultural practices changed as manor houses and landed estates were established, producing wealth for the ruling families. Under Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Knut VI (reg 1182–1202), Jutland witnessed a great building activity; on Jutland more than 700 stone churches were constructed, some replacing earlier wooden churches, each needing liturgical furnishings. Workshops, such as that of the renowned sculptor Horder and many others, were actively engaged in carving stone baptismal fonts (e.g. Malt, Skodborg, Ut, Stenild), capitals, reliefs (Vestervig, Aalborg) and tympana (Gjøl, Ørsted, Stjaer, Skibet), wooden cult figures, Jutland’s golden altars (Lisbjerg, Sahl, Stadil, Tamdrup) and wall paintings. Evidence of the earliest wall paintings in Jutland, ...

Article

Jerzy Kowalczyk and Thomas Martin

[Gianmaria] [Padoan, Zuan Maria; Padovano, Jan Maria]

(b Padua, c. 1493/5; d Kraków, after March 31, 1574).

Italian sculptor, medallist and architect, active in Poland. He is first documented in 1507, when he was apprenticed for six years to the Paduan sculptor Giovanni d’Antonio Minello de’ Bardi. Released early from this contract, he also trained with the sculptor Bartolomeo Mantello (fl early 16th century). His first documented work is a bronze relief of the Beheading of St John the Baptist (1516; Padua Cathedral). In Padua he also executed a marble relief of the Judgement of Solomon (Paris, Louvre) for Giambattista Leon. However, a commission dated 28 April 1520 for a marble relief of the Miracle of the Unbroken Goblet (Padua, Santo, Chapel of St Anthony) describes him as a resident of Venice, working on the high altar of S Rocco in that city. Mosca’s work on the relief proceeded from 1523 to 1529, when the almost completed relief was finished by Paolo Stella after Mosca’s final departure. In S Rocco, the lower register of the high altar contains two small marble works by Mosca, ...

Article

(b Lodi, c. 1569–70; d Graz, bur March 6, 1633).

Italian painter, architect, engineer and medallist, active in Austria. He trained as a painter in Venice, probably in the workshop of Tintoretto. Although no dated or signed works from his Venetian period are known, a number of paintings are now attributed to him that were earlier ascribed to the circle of Tintoretto, including the Resurrection (Stuttgart, Staatsgal.), the Flagellation (Prague Castle) and the Triumph of Virtue (Madrid, Prado), all between 1584 and 1589. Around 1589 Pomis entered the service of Archduke Ferdinand II, later Holy Roman Emperor, who appointed him official painter to the court in Graz in 1597. In the service of the Archduke, Pomis travelled in 1598 to Rome, Loreto and Spain, in 1601 to Hungary and in 1608 to Florence. His works from this period include an altarpiece representing the Apotheosis of the Counter-Reformation (1602; Graz, St Anton von Padua), an energetic composition probably influenced by Tintoretto, a painting of the ...

Article

Daniel Kletke

(b c. 1450; d 1527).

German goldsmith and architect. He was one of the most important goldsmiths in Augsburg during the transitional period from Late Gothic to Renaissance and worked there as an independent master after 1478, receiving commissions for both secular and ecclesiastical works. From 1486 he was employed by the convent of SS Ulrich and Afra in Augsburg, and he gained particular renown for the conservation of old goldsmith’s works including the abbey’s Romanesque croziers. Interestingly, some of his pieces echo Romanesque as well as 15th-century forms. Such commissions as an architectural model (1498) for the Prince-Bishop of Brixen and a silver figure of the Virgin for Mariae Himmelfahrt, Kaisheim, may account for his increasing fame. Notable is the portable altar from Eichstätt (1492; Munich, Schloss Nymphenburg) with a cycle of engravings and statuettes depicting St Willibald and other saints. The character of the engravings has been linked to the works of Hans Holbein the elder (Fritz). Seld’s extensive travels in ...

Article

Jane Campbell Hutchison

(b Liège, c. 1510; d Frankfurt am Main, 1574–6).

South Netherlandish printmaker, architect and poet. He was the son of the episcopal goldsmith Henri Zutman (1460–1512). He became a follower of his brother-in-law, Lambert Lombard, with whose work his own was formerly confused. Suavius became an independent master in 1539, when he married and bought a house in Liège. In the same year he purchased a glazier’s stylus with a diamond point, which he used in addition to the standard engraver’s burin to obtain a wider range of effects in his prints. He travelled to Italy, probably in the 1550s. His updated series of Views of Various Ruins (Hollstein, nos 90–117), including the Colosseum, evidently done in Rome, is executed entirely in etching, while his extensive series of portraits of the Roman emperors (Hollstein, nos 52–60) is done in a highly original mixture of engraving, drypoint and etching. He also engraved portraits of Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle...

Article

Catherine Fruhan

(b Rome, Oct 12, 1575; d Milan, ?1630).

Italian architect, engineer and bronze-caster. He learnt the principles of design and goldworking from his father, a Venetian goldsmith, then turned to the study of civil and military architecture. He took part in the Spanish campaigns in the southern Netherlands, whence he was ordered back to Rome in 1598 by Pope Clement VIII to work on the elaborate bronze ciborium (completed 1600) for the altar of the Blessed Sacrament in the Pope’s completely renovated transept of S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. Subsequently, Targone worked in Flanders, Mantua and Cologne as a military engineer but was again recalled to Rome (1607) by Pope Paul V, who sought his expertise in hydraulics, marsh drainage, water supply and military fortifications. For a monthly salary Targone acted as Paul’s adviser, supervising many of his schemes, for example the building of the Aqua Paola (1607–11) to the designs of Domenico Fontana and ...

Article

Fernando Marías

(b Villalpando, Zamora, c. 1510; d Toledo, before July 2, 1561).

Spanish metalworker, architect and writer. He came from a family of artists, his brothers being the architects and stuccoists Juan (c. 1505–after 1563) and Jerónimo (c. 1505–before 1561) del Corral de Villalpando and the wrought-iron worker Ruy Díez del Corral. Later, the architect Gaspar de Vega (d 1576) became his brother-in-law. Villalpando must have been trained by his family, and he may have travelled to Italy between 1533 and 1537. In 1540 he was living in Valladolid; there he came into contact with Cardinal Juan Pardo de Tavera, who took him to Toledo and commissioned him to execute the ironwork (1541–8) for the chancel of the cathedral. Villalpando also worked for the college of San Ildefonso de Alcalá de Henares, where he executed the ironwork for some of the library windows (1542–6). He settled, however, in Toledo and carried out his most important creations as a metalworker for the cathedral there: the pulpits (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(fl 1497–1522).

German goldsmith and seal-engraver. He worked in Aachen, where he engraved seals for the Emperors Maximilian I and Charles V. His Gothic bust reliquaries are set on an architectural socle and are often of monumental dimensions, for example those of St Lambert (1508–12; Liège, St Lambert) and St Peter (...