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Charles Robertson

[Suardi, Bartolomeo]

(b ?Milan, c. 1465; d Milan, 1530).

Italian painter and architect. He was one of the leading artists in Milan in the early 16th century. His early training as a goldsmith may indicate a relatively late start to his activity as a painter, and none of his work may be dated before 1490. The style of his early work parallels that of such followers of Vincenzo Foppa as Bernardino Butinone, Bernardo Zenale and Giovanni Donato da Montorfano. He assumed the name Bramantino very early in his career, indicating that he was in close contact with Donato Bramante, whose influence is uppermost in his early work.

Bramantino’s earliest surviving painting is probably the Virgin and Child (Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.). It is an adaptation of a type of half-length Virgin with standing Christ Child well known in Milan. The linear emphasis and the dramatic treatment of light are aspects derived from Bramante’s work. Bramantino stressed graphic quality in this picture, and throughout his early work he was considerably influenced by Andrea Mantegna and by the visual aspects of prints. His ...

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Véronique Meyer

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Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

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Véronique Meyer

[Du Monstier; Dumontier; Dumoustier; Du Moustier.]

French family of artists. At least 11 artists of this name are known, working variously as painters, draughtsmen, designers, goldsmiths and sculptors, and active from the 16th century to the 18th (see fig.). The exact relationships of some family members are difficult to determine; these include Cosme Dumonstier I (d Rouen, 1552), a goldsmith known to have worked for Rouen Cathedral; Etienne Dumonstier I (fl Rouen, c. 1501), an illuminator working at the château of Gaillon for Cardinal Georges d’Amboise; Cardin (or Carentin) Dumonstier, a sculptor mentioned in the accounts of the Bâtiments du Roi from 1540 to 1550; and Charles Dumonstier, active in the mid-18th century as a painter and engraver: his works include portraits of Louis XV and Marie Leczinska (Paris, Louvre). The main branch of the family began with the painter and illuminator Jean Dumonstier (d Rouen, c. 1535), whose son (1) ...

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O. Lohr

(b Basle, bapt June 24, 1560; d Nuremberg, April 19, 1633).

Swiss pewterer, Formschneider and painter, active in Germany. He was probably apprenticed to the pewterer Hans Friderich in Basle in 1574. By 1583 Enderlein was registered as a journeyman in Nuremberg, which was an important centre for the production of pewter in the 16th century (see Nuremberg, §III, 2). In 1585 he executed his masterpiece, and a year later he was listed as a master and a citizen of the imperial city of Nuremberg. He created models of pewter pots, candlesticks and sconces and may also have produced Amtsformen (official patterns or moulds) that masters could lend to each other; according to his own account he was a Formschneider (maker of patterns or moulds) and a painter. Enderlein enriched the repertory of form in pewterware by using elements from French Renaissance ornament. He introduced many technical innovations into his craft, and he is credited with producing the first pewter chandelier (untraced) in the Nuremberg area, although no pewter pieces bearing his stamp have been discovered, and thus it is mainly in the field of pattern-cutting that his abilities can be judged. He probably did not employ many journeymen in his workshop, but his idiosyncratic style of ornament appears on pewter tankards, bowls and plates made from the early 17th century until the late Baroque period. Enderlein was more concerned with producing ...

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Véronique Meyer

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Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

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Véronique Meyer

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Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...

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Joanne A. Rubino

(b Recanati, 1580; d Recanati, 1655).

Italian sculptor, painter, architect and bronze caster. He is known primarily for his bronzes, which combine an adherence to traditional standards of 15th-century Lombardy and a move towards the more dramatic qualities of the Baroque. With his brother, Tarquino Jacometti (1570–1638), he was instructed in drawing and sculpting by his uncle, Antonio Calcagni, but the influence of his lifelong teacher Cristoforo Roncalli was always uppermost in his works. The brothers became business partners, collaborating in casting bronze low reliefs, fountains and baptismal fonts, but Pietro Paolo also produced individual items.

The Jacometti brothers collaborated in such bronze works as the fountain (1619–20) in the Piazza della Madonna, Loreto; the Galli fountain, Loreto; the fountain (1619) in the Piazza del Popolo, Faenza; and on fonts in Recanati Cathedral (1622) and S Giovanni Battista, Osimo (1622–8). Pietro Paolo also produced the bronze portrait of ...

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Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

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Silvia Glaser and Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

[Kellerdahler; Kellerdaller; Kolertal]

German family of goldsmiths, medallists, engravers, draughtsmen and painters. Three generations are documented in Dresden between 1554 and 1662. Johann Kellerthaler I (b c. 1530), a master in Dresden in 1554, was formerly assigned various engravings of Martin Luther, Charles V etc, now known to be the work of Jobst Kammerer (fl 1552–8). His brother Christoph Kellerthaler I (c. 1535–1592/1612), a master by 1573 and an elder of the goldsmiths’ guild in 1579, did various works for the Electors Augustus, Christian I and Christian II of Saxony: in the Dresden Frauenkirche, some chains (1572), silver cutlery sets (1584), cups (1588) and a chalice (1598) can tentatively be assigned to him. Christoph took on his three sons as apprentices between 1576 and 1589; these were (1) Johann Kellerthaler II, Christoph Kellerthaler II (fl 1587–1639...

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[Keij]

Flemish family of artists. Adriaen Woutersz. Key (d before 4 June 1541) was a goldsmith in Breda, as was his son Frans Key; at least four other sons settled in Antwerp, where three were active as painters and the youngest as a diamond-cutter. Wouter Key (before 1516–after 1542), presumably the eldest, was registered as a pupil of Jan Wellens de Cock in 1516–17. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke in 1531 and the following year is documented as having an apprentice, as he did again in 1544, the same year he was elected dean of the Guild. In 1547–8 he served as head receiver of the Guild’s Poor-box (armenbus), which he helped found in 1537. No paintings by him are known, nor any by Cornelis Key, who became a master painter in 1549. The work of (1) Willem Key, a history and portrait painter, is best known, although many of his paintings have also disappeared, having perished during the Spanish Fury of ...

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Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1550; d 1634).

French gunsmith, maker of scientific instruments and painter. He was a native of Lisieux (Normandy), where he had his workshop, and worked as a royal gunsmith for Henry IV and Louis XIII. He was almost certainly the inventor of the flintlock, a firing mechanism that advanced the design of the matchlock by the installation of a one-piece mechanism that combined a flint ignition and a damp-proof flashpan. Although the flintlock was a single-shot gun, it remained the dominant infantry weapon in Europe and America until the mid-19th century....

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Marianne Grivel

(b Limoges, c. 1505; d Limoges, 1575/7).

French Enameller, etcher, painter and miniature painter. He was the best-known enameller of Renaissance France and may have learnt that trade in the Pécinaud workshop in Limoges. Encouraged by the Bishop of Limoges, Jean de Langeac, who probably put him in touch with the court of Francis I, Limosin produced painted enamels on copper in all forms, including plates and plaques with mythological and religious subjects (see fig.), tableware and caskets. His chief speciality was the interpretation in enamels of portrait drawings by artists of the school of Jean and François Clouet, such as that of Anne de Montmorency (Paris, Louvre).

Limosin’s earliest enamels were inspired by German engravings; in 1532 he copied Albrecht Dürer’s Small Passion series (Paris, Mus. Cluny). From 1535, however, he turned more towards Italian art and that of the Fontainebleau school, using, for instance, motifs from Raphael’s Legend of Psyche, engraved by the Master of the Die, for a large plate (Paris, priv. col., see Lavedan, p. 85) enamelled with the ...

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Christopher Foley

(b ?1565–7; d London, March 1616).

English painter and goldsmith. Son of a crossbow maker of the parish of St Bride’s, London, he was probably aged between 14 and 16 in 1581, when he began his eight-year apprenticeship to the miniature painter and goldsmith Nicholas Hilliard, but he seems to have absorbed relatively little of Hilliard’s talent.

Lockey was working independently by 1590, when he painted a series of group portraits of the Family of Sir Thomas More, deriving largely from Hans Holbein the younger’s composition of the same sitters (destr.; sketch, Basle, Kstmus.). The large-scale oil paintings (e.g. London, N.P.G.) and the miniature (London, V&A) of this subject show a worthy, if pedestrian, technique. Similarly his signed and dated portrait of Margaret Beaufort (1598; Cambridge, St John’s Coll.), a copy of a much earlier work, is a routine piece of decorative painting typical of an ancestor-obsessed age. In 1592 Hilliard introduced him to Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, the redoubtable Bess of Hardwick, from whom he received 40s. for two paintings (untraced). From ...

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(b Delft, May 1, 1567; d Delft, June 27, 1641).

Dutch painter. The son of a Delft goldsmith, he received his first training as a painter under Willem Willemsz. and Augustus, two otherwise unknown masters. In 1581 he continued his training with Anthonie Blocklandt in Utrecht, where he remained for two years. He then returned to Delft where, as early as 1589, he became an officer of the Guild of St Luke.

At first van Mierevelt worked in the style of Blocklandt, as in the Judgement of Paris (1588; Stockholm, Nmus.), but he soon turned to portraiture, in which he was influenced by his fellow-townsman Jacob Willemsz. Delff the elder. Van Mander praised van Mierevelt as a portrait painter, but very little work from his early period is known. He worked steadily from about 1607, the date of his portrait of Prince Maurits of Orange Nassau (Delft, Stadhuis). The same year he became official painter to the stadholder court and began to produce many portraits of members of the House of Orange Nassau. He was the most popular portrait painter with the leading citizens of Delft and soon also received commissions from other noble families of the Dutch Republic as well as from foreign diplomats based in The Hague. He was one of the relatively few Dutch portrait painters in the first half of the 17th century whose patrons were not limited to his own place of residence. Among his foreign sitters were the English ambassador ...

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Véronique Meyer

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