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Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...

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(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...

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[Cesari, Carlo de; Pallago, Carlo; Palazzo, Carlo; Zeherin, Karl]

(b Florence, 1540; d Mantua, c. 1598).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and bronze-caster. His work was considered to be by two artists until Keutner (1991–2) proposed that Carlo di Cesari and Carlo Pallago were the same person. Most of his creative career was spent working at the courts of German princes; so far his name has been connected with surviving works only north of the Alps. He is documented as working, in his early years, as an assistant to Vasari and Giambologna at the Medici court in Florence. In 1565 he was accepted as a member at the Accademia del Disegno in Florence, continuing to pay his subscription until 1568. From 1569 to 1573 he worked for Hans Fugger in Augsburg (see Fugger family §(3)), making sculptural decorations in stucco and terracotta for his house (partly destr. 1944) as part of Friedrich Sustris’s decorative scheme. Twelve pairs of almost life-size terracotta satyrs have survived in the library, which remains intact. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German family of goldsmiths , based in Nuremberg. The founder of the family was Christoph Ritter the elder (d 1572), whose best-known surviving work is a salt-cellar topped with an enamelled Crucifixion group (London, priv. col.), which he made in 1551 for the Nuremberg City Treasury. His son Christoph Ritter the younger (...