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Philip Attwood

[Bertinet, François]

(b Ostia, nr Rome; d Rome, 1706).

Italian medallist, active in France. At the age of 22 he travelled from Ostia to Venice and from there, at the summons of the Finance Minister Nicolas Fouquet, to Paris, where he spent many years. In 1665 he executed a bronze medal of Fouquet. He spent eight years in prison as a result of his association with Fouquet, who had been arrested in 1661 after being denounced by Jean-Baptiste Colbert; between 1671 and 1687 Bertinetti made several bronze portrait medals of Louis XIV, one of them during his time in prison. He also made bronze medals of Maria-Theresa, Dr Jacques de Sainte-Beuve and one depicting an unknown priest. Most of his works are signed Bertinet, but one of his medals of Louis XIV is signed Bertinet et Auvy. His best medals are in a Baroque style reminiscent of Gianlorenzo Bernini.

DBI; Thieme–Becker L. Forrer: Biographical Dictionary of Medallists (London, 1902–30), vii, pp. 76–7...


Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b ?Reims, 1622; d Lyon, Nov 17, 1692).

French medallist and sculptor. He was working in Lyon by 1657, when he produced a medallion of Archbishop Camille de Neuville de Villeroi. Further medallions worked in wax and cast in wax or lead, in the manner of Jean Warin, show members of the Consulat of Lyon and some members of their families and date from 1658–65 (e.g. Paris, Bib. N.; Lyon, Mus. B.-A.). Bidau also carved stone sculptures for buildings in Lyon, including a Virgin (before 1658), David and Goliath (1660), an Annunciation (1665) and St Catherine (1678). His relief for the Hôtel de Ville celebrating the Peace of the Pyrenees (1660–61; in situ) was made in collaboration with the local sculptor Jacques Mîmerel (fl 1649–70); in addition Bidau provided the model for a fountain (1661) in the Place des Terreaux.

In 1671 Bidau joined the team of sculptors working for ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Paris, baptJune 10, 1646; d Paris, Dec 31, 1732).

French sculptor and bronze-caster. He came from a family of goldsmiths of Flemish origin who settled in Paris in the early 17th century. Early biographers state that he trained with Michel or François Anguier and at the Académie Royale. He spent six years at the Académie de France in Rome, where he is said to have studied above all the sculpture of Bernini. This was followed by four years in Venice. He applied for admission to the Académie in 1678, and he was received (reçu) in 1681 with a marble statuette of Polyphemus (Paris, Louvre), inspired by Annibale Carracci’s fresco in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. From this time until 1720 he enjoyed a highly successful career in royal service and in the employ of the Church and of private clients. He devoted much energy to the affairs of the academy, eventually holding the office of Chancellor. He worked in every branch of sculpture, from monumental marble and bronze statues to small bronze statuettes and candlesticks....


Alison Luchs

(b Settignano, nr Florence, 1670; d Florence, 1736).

Italian sculptor, medallist, architect and festival designer. He was a leading figure in the generation of sculptors trained in Florence after the dissolution of the Accademia Fiorentina in Rome (1686). Taught by Carlo Marcellini and Giuseppe Piamontini, he worked under Giovanni Battista Foggini on sculpture for the Feroni Chapel in SS Annunziata, Florence (1691–3), and the nave of SS Michele e Gaetano (1694–6). His principal sculptures are marble works for the high altar of SS Annunziata (1704–6) and portraits. His statues of St Filippo Benizzi and St Giuliana Falconieri for the Annunziata altar, with their animated balance and restrained intensity, are among the best of their date in Florence. Several portrait busts and reliefs, with an unsparingly detailed realism tempered by coolly imperious expression, have been attributed to him. The basis for these attributions is the signed marble effigy of Baron Philipp Bertram Degenhard Joseph von Hochkirchen...


Angela Catello

(b Forlì, 1646; d Rome, 1721).

Italian draughtsman, silversmith, bronze-caster and gem-carver. Between 1665 and 1668 he was apprenticed to the silversmith Marco Gamberucci (fl 1656–80) in Rome. In 1675 he qualified as a master silversmith and rapidly achieved a position of prestige in the silversmiths’ guild. He ran a productive workshop, in which he was joined in 1680 by his brother Alessandro Giardini (b 1655). In 1698 he was appointed bronze-founder for the Papacy. Only a few of his works in silver have survived, most of them church furnishings that escaped the depredations of the Napoleonic army. These show a strong sense of form and a technical mastery that earned him important commissions from the papal court, including an imposing papal mace in silver and parcel-gilt (c. 1696; London, V&A), a tabernacle in silver, gilt copper, porphyry and rock-crystal (1711; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.) and a cross and two candlesticks in silver and malachite (...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b Bad Mergentheim, nr Würzburg, 1585; d Schwaz, nr Innsbruck, Dec 3, 1674).

Austrian sculptor of German birth. After training with his father, a goldsmith, and from 1600 to 1602 as an apprentice embosser at the court of Archduke Maximilian III in Bad Mergentheim, he followed his patron and teacher, Hubert Gerhard, to Innsbruck, where he remained a member of Gerhard’s workshop until 1606. By 1610 Gras had obtained the post of Court Embosser and, after Gerhard’s departure for Munich in 1613, he received most of the court’s commissions, including the bronze memorial of Maximilian III (1615–19; Innsbruck Cathedral). The life-size kneeling statue of Maximilian III and the standing St George, together with the elaborate naturalistic decorations of the baldachino-like base, were designed by Gras and cast by his frequent collaborator, Heinrich Reinhart (c. 1570–1629). Gras’s finest project was the monumental Leopold Fountain (1623–30) in the Rennweg, Innsbruck. It is surmounted by the equestrian statue of Archduke Leopold V...


Franco Panvini Rosati

Italian family of engravers and medallists, of Bavarian origin. They worked mainly in the Roman mint from the mid-17th century to the end of the 18th. The medals they made are notable above all for their documentary value relating to the history of Rome and the city’s monuments. They were technically skilled but somewhat unimaginative portrait artists. Johan Andreas Hamerani (b Adensburg, c. 1600; d Livorno, 1644) arrived in Rome in 1615 during the pontificate of Pope Paul V. Although he worked in the papal mint, he did not execute annual medals. His son Alberto Hamerani (b Rome, 10 Oct 1620; d Rome, 21 June 1677) worked for a short time at the mint of Massa Carrara, then, between 1657 and 1669, in Rome, as assistant first to Gaspare Morone Mola and later to Girolamo Lucenti. From 1667 he engraved papal seals. Noteworthy among his medals was one commemorating the entry into Rome of Queen Christina of Sweden (...


M. J. C. Otten

(bapt Amsterdam, Sept 10, 1645; bur Haarlem, June 15, 1708).

Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from Constantijn Huygens the elder, secretary to William III; this was Zeestraet (1667; Hollstein, no. 287). In 1668 de Hooghe was in Paris, where he produced some book illustrations, but he returned to Amsterdam, where from 1670 to 1691 he illustrated the annual newsheet Hollandsche Mercurius. He regularly produced such political prints as ...


Joanne A. Rubino

(b Recanati, 1580; d Recanati, 1655).

Italian sculptor, painter, architect and bronze caster. He is known primarily for his bronzes, which combine an adherence to traditional standards of 15th-century Lombardy and a move towards the more dramatic qualities of the Baroque. With his brother, Tarquino Jacometti (1570–1638), he was instructed in drawing and sculpting by his uncle, Antonio Calcagni, but the influence of his lifelong teacher Cristoforo Roncalli was always uppermost in his works. The brothers became business partners, collaborating in casting bronze low reliefs, fountains and baptismal fonts, but Pietro Paolo also produced individual items.

The Jacometti brothers collaborated in such bronze works as the fountain (1619–20) in the Piazza della Madonna, Loreto; the Galli fountain, Loreto; the fountain (1619) in the Piazza del Popolo, Faenza; and on fonts in Recanati Cathedral (1622) and S Giovanni Battista, Osimo (1622–8). Pietro Paolo also produced the bronze portrait of ...


Helmut Börsch-Supan

(b Freystadt, Lower Silesia, 1630; d Berlin, 1683).

German die-cutter, medallist and sculptor. In 1645 he travelled to Nuremberg to train as an armourer with Albrecht Liechtmann. He specialized in engraving on iron, made contact with Georg Pfründt, an artist experienced in this technique, and developed into one of the best medallists and die-cutters of his time. In 1653 he had his own workshop as a sculptor and medallist. Sandrart praised Leygebe’s art as something extraordinary, probably on account of his claim to be able to carve statuettes from an iron block; in reality, however, the three surviving examples of Leygebe’s iron statuettes are cast. In 1659–60 he produced an equestrian statuette of Leopold I (Copenhagen, Rosenborg Slot). It was followed c. 1660–62 by an equestrian statuette of Charles II (Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe), occasioned by the restoration of the English monarchy. A portrayal of Frederick William, the Great Elector, as Bellerophon on Pegasus Vanquishing the Chimera (before 1672...


Mark S. Weil

(b Rome, c. 1625; d Rome, April 4, 1698).

Italian medallist, bronze-founder and sculptor. He learnt the craft of bronze-casting from his father, Ambrogio Lucenti (d 1656), who worked for the Fabbrica di S Pietro. He may have learnt marble carving in Bernini’s workshop, as he was one of several artists who collaborated with the master on the sculptural decoration (1647–9) of the nave and aisles of St Peter’s, Rome, and he also worked with Alessandro Algardi. Lucenti’s best-known statue is the colossal marble figure of the Angel Carrying the Column (1668–9) for the Ponte Sant’Angelo, Rome. Lucenti either misunderstood the design provided by Bernini, or lacked the necessary skill as a marble carver, as the work is awkward and lacks the easy contrapposto movement of the other statues on the bridge.

Lucenti was most successful as a die-engraver and bronze-founder. He cast artillery pieces for the Castel Sant’Angelo (1658–63), and worked for the papal Mint (...


Alison Luchs

(b Florence, c. 1644; d Florence, June 22, 1713).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and architect. After training in Florence as a goldsmith, he studied with the painter Felice Ficherelli. In 1671 he went to Rome, having been chosen for the Tuscan Accademia Granducale. He studied sculpture under Ercole Ferrata and Ciro Ferri, showing a predilection for modelling rather than the marble carving expected by his patron, Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. In 1672 he won first prize at the Accademia di S Luca for a terracotta relief of Decaulion and Pirra. He modelled the angels (1673–4) for the ciborium at the Chiesa Nuova (S Maria in Vallicella), which was designed by Ferri and cast by Stefano Benamati, and a terracotta relief of the Fall of the Giants (1674), pendant to a Niobid relief by Giovanni Battista Foggini (both Florence, Mus. Opificio Pietre Dure). When recalled to Florence in 1676, he was working on a more than life-size marble bust of ...


Donatella Germanó Siracusa

(b Florence, May 13, 1666; d Rome, after 1739).

Italian sculptor, medallist, miniaturist and architect. He came from a family of craftsmen (his brother Cosimo Merlini (fl 1692–1736) was a silversmith of some repute) and, like his father, trained in the grand ducal workshops in Florence. He then worked for the Medici court. His emergence as a sculptor dates to c. 1692, with his two marble Angels for the Ferroni Chapel (Florence, SS Annunziata). In November 1694 he moved to Rome, where for about a year he was active as a medallist and miniaturist. For the altar in the chapel of St Ignatius in the church of Il Gesù, Rome, Merlini executed a bronze relief of St Peter Appearing to St Ignatius (1695–6), based on a drawing by Andrea Pozzo, and Two Putti Flanking a Cartouche (1697). His monument to the Marchesa Riccardi (c. 1700; Rome, S Giovanni dei Fiorentini), which demonstrates his fine abilities as a portrait artist in the manner of Lorenzo Ottoni, is the most significant work of his first stay in Rome. Returning to Florence in ...


Flavia Ormond

(b Florence, c. 1685; d Rome, after 1740).

Italian sculptor, medallist and possible architect. A pupil in Florence of Giuseppe Piamontini, he was first active as a medallist; one of his earliest and most exquisite medals celebrated the visit of King Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway to Florence in 1708. On the obverse is a portrait of the King; on the reverse, a view of the city with a reclining river god personifying the Arno (Florence, Bargello). A medal of Conte Lorenzo Magalotti, dated 1712 (version, London, BM), has Apollo on the reverse, whose exaggerated sway in the hips is reflected in two later small bronzes (Rome, Pal. Corsini). There are also two medals of the Grand Duke Gian Gastone de’ Medici (before 1723 and 1731; both Florence, Bargello). Montauti’s careful characterizations in the portrait medals are reflected in his marble portrait busts. One, of Gian Gastone de’ Medici (c. 1724; Florence, Arcisp. S Maria Nuo.), emphasizes the ugly features of large nose, pouting lips and jutting chin by using a schematic treatment for the wig....


Anthea Brook

(b Castelfranco di Sotto, nr Florence, 1600; d Florence, Sept 16, 1662).

Italian sculptor. He spent most of his life in Florence, working mainly in marble, stone and stucco and providing models for goldsmiths. He was apprenticed to Gherardo Silvani from 1614 to 1618 and then worked with the sculptor Agostino Bugiardini (d 1623), whose unfinished works in the church of S Felicità, Florence, Novelli completed. During the early 1620s Novelli was employed on Giulio Parigi’s renovations of the Palazzo Pitti and Poggio Imperiale, and his earliest surviving works are stuccos of children in the Sala della Stufa (1626–7; Florence, Pitti). His finest statues include Legislation (1635–8; Florence, Pitti, grotto), Christ the Redeemer (1640; Florence, S Marco), the St Simon and St Andrew (c. 1640–44; Florence, SS Michele e Gaetano, Del Rosso Chapel), allegorical figures of Martyrdom and Glory (?after 1640; Florence, SS Annunziata, Pucci Chapel), and St Mary Magdalene (1649; Stockholm, Nmus.). For Cardinal ...


Donatella Germanó Siracusa

(fl c. 1694–1716).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist and medallist. He worked in southern central Italy, where he is documented as both Pietro Papaleo and Francesco Papaleo, and then in Rome, where his presence is well documented from 1694, when he was elected a member of the Accademia di S Luca, until 1716. His marble work is influenced by Lorenzo Ottoni, who was an accomplished portrait artist in the manner of Bernini. He is presumed to have worked in Naples, where his Victory of St Paul (1688) is in the chapel of S Gennaro in the cathedral. In 1696, with Camillo Rusconi, he was commissioned to make four angels for the chapel of S Ignazio in the church of Il Gesù, Rome, but was replaced by Ottoni and Francesco Moratti because of conflicting contractual obligations (to Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni). His work as a stuccoist included collaborating with Ottoni to make five putti to accompany an ...


(b Lodi, c. 1569–70; d Graz, bur March 6, 1633).

Italian painter, architect, engineer and medallist, active in Austria. He trained as a painter in Venice, probably in the workshop of Tintoretto. Although no dated or signed works from his Venetian period are known, a number of paintings are now attributed to him that were earlier ascribed to the circle of Tintoretto, including the Resurrection (Stuttgart, Staatsgal.), the Flagellation (Prague Castle) and the Triumph of Virtue (Madrid, Prado), all between 1584 and 1589. Around 1589 Pomis entered the service of Archduke Ferdinand II, later Holy Roman Emperor, who appointed him official painter to the court in Graz in 1597. In the service of the Archduke, Pomis travelled in 1598 to Rome, Loreto and Spain, in 1601 to Hungary and in 1608 to Florence. His works from this period include an altarpiece representing the Apotheosis of the Counter-Reformation (1602; Graz, St Anton von Padua), an energetic composition probably influenced by Tintoretto, a painting of the ...


(b Nancy, June 30, 1658; d Nancy, Jan 10, 1738).

French medallist and architect. He trained under his father, Claude Urbain (1628–98), a medallist and engraver. He went to Munich in 1671, then to Bologna, where he was an engraver at the mint (1673–83), and finally to Rome, where from 1683 to 1703 he was engraver and architect to Innocent XI, Alexander VIII and Innocent XII. While in Rome he married Elisabeth Mantenois (d 1743), a flower and fruit painter. One of their daughters, Marie-Anne de Saint-Urbain (c. 1711–89), established a reputation as a medallist and wax modeller in Vienna.

After his return to Nancy in 1703, Saint-Urbain was appointed architect and engraver to Duke Leopold of Lorraine (1707). Among his works are a series of portraits of the Dukes and Duchesses of Lorraine, 17 medals for a series of papal portraits (from St Peter to Clement XI), seven medals commemorating the regency of the Duke of Orléans, and coinage for the mints of Bologna, Rome and Nancy. His medals for private patrons include portraits of ...


Dorothea Diemer

(b Nuremberg, April 6, 1613; d Nuremberg, June 13, 1690).

German sculptor and medallist. He was a son of the sculptor Immanuel Schweigger (d 1634). He is thought to have been apprenticed first to his father and then to Christoph Ritter III (1610–76), a Nuremberg goldsmith and sculptor, but his work appears to reflect the influence of Netherlandish sculpture of the second half of the 16th century. His first known work is a stone modello (1633; Hamburg, Mus. Kst & Gew.) for a monument to Gustav II Adolf of Sweden (not executed).

Schweigger’s work falls into two phases. During the Thirty Years War, when there were almost no commissions for large-scale sculpture, he made small-scale objets d’art, reliefs and plaquettes for sale to the public. From about 1635 until the 1640s he produced portrait plaquettes in hardwood or stone of such historical figures as Martin Luther, Erasmus of Rotterdam (both Brunswick, Städt. Mus.), Philipp Melanchthon...


J. G. Pollard

(b 1679; d Florence, 1753).

Italian sculptor, medallist and modeller. He was the most prolific of the Baroque medallists who worked in Florence. Nothing is known of his origins, although he is believed to have arrived in Florence by 1698; he was a pupil of Massimiliano Soldani and worked as a sculptor in bronze, as a medallist and as a modeller. He is documented as assisting Soldani with the monument to Manoel da Vilhena (1725–9; Valletta Cathedral), but the only works by Selvi that survive are his portrait medals. The earliest of these is dated 1711, and he was to remain active as a medallist until the end of his life. The type of his medals, cast in bronze from exquisite wax models, had been reintroduced into Florence by Soldani. Both the style and the contents of Selvi’s medals follow that of Soldani, occasionally equalling his superb portraits and imitating Soldani’s favourite reverse compositions formed of two allegorical figures. Selvi’s medals include portraits of five British patrons, among them one of the expatriate ...